We present WinoQueer: a benchmark specifically designed to measure whether large language models (LLMs) encode biases that are harmful to the LGBTQ+ community. The benchmark is community-sourced, via application of a novel method that generates a bias benchmark from a community survey. We apply our benchmark to several popular LLMs and find that off-the-shelf models generally do exhibit considerable anti-queer bias. Finally, we show that LLM bias against a marginalized community can be somewhat mitigated by finetuning on data written about or by members of that community, and that social media text written by community members is more effective than news text written about the community by non-members. Our method for community-in-the-loop benchmark development provides a blueprint for future researchers to develop community-driven, harms-grounded LLM benchmarks for other marginalized communities.
This paper presents exploratory work on whether and to what extent biases against queer and trans people are encoded in large language models (LLMs) such as BERT. We also propose a method for reducing these biases in downstream tasks: finetuning the models on data written by and/or about queer people. To measure anti-queer bias, we introduce a new benchmark dataset, WinoQueer, modeled after other bias-detection benchmarks but addressing homophobic and transphobic biases. We found that BERT shows significant homophobic bias, but this bias can be mostly mitigated by finetuning BERT on a natural language corpus written by members of the LGBTQ+ community.
The U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA) requires that e-cigarette advertisements include a prominent warning label that reminds consumers that nicotine is addictive. However, the high volume of vaping-related posts on social media makes compliance auditing expensive and time-consuming, suggesting that an automated, scalable method is needed. We sought to develop and evaluate a deep learning system designed to automatically determine if an Instagram post promotes vaping, and if so, if an FDA-compliant warning label was included or if a non-compliant warning label was visible in the image. We compiled and labeled a dataset of 4,363 Instagram images, of which 44% were vaping-related, 3% contained FDA-compliant warning labels, and 4% contained non-compliant labels. Using a 20% test set for evaluation, we tested multiple neural network variations: image processing backbone model (Inceptionv3, ResNet50, EfficientNet), data augmentation, progressive layer unfreezing, output bias initialization designed for class imbalance, and multitask learning. Our final model achieved an area under the curve (AUC) and [accuracy] of 0.97 [92%] on vaping classification, 0.99 [99%] on FDA-compliant warning labels, and 0.94 [97%] on non-compliant warning labels. We conclude that deep learning models can effectively identify vaping posts on Instagram and track compliance with FDA warning label requirements.
Negotiation is a process where agents aim to work through disputes and maximize their surplus. As the use of deep reinforcement learning in bargaining games is unexplored, this paper evaluates its ability to exploit, adapt, and cooperate to produce fair outcomes. Two actor-critic networks were trained for the bidding and acceptance strategy, against time-based agents, behavior-based agents, and through self-play. Gameplay against these agents reveals three key findings. 1) Neural agents learn to exploit time-based agents, achieving clear transitions in decision preference values. The Cauchy distribution emerges as suitable for sampling offers, due to its peaky center and heavy tails. The kurtosis and variance sensitivity of the probability distributions used for continuous control produce trade-offs in exploration and exploitation. 2) Neural agents demonstrate adaptive behavior against different combinations of concession, discount factors, and behavior-based strategies. 3) Most importantly, neural agents learn to cooperate with other behavior-based agents, in certain cases utilizing non-credible threats to force fairer results. This bears similarities with reputation-based strategies in the evolutionary dynamics, and departs from equilibria in classical game theory.