The efficient construction of an anatomical model is one of the major challenges of patient-specific in-silico models of the human heart. Current methods frequently rely on linear statistical models, allowing no advanced topological changes, or requiring medical image segmentation followed by a meshing pipeline, which strongly depends on image resolution, quality, and modality. These approaches are therefore limited in their transferability to other imaging domains. In this work, the cardiac shape is reconstructed by means of three-dimensional deep signed distance functions with Lipschitz regularity. For this purpose, the shapes of cardiac MRI reconstructions are learned from public databases to model the spatial relation of multiple chambers in Cartesian space. We demonstrate that this approach is also capable of reconstructing anatomical models from partial data, such as point clouds from a single ventricle, or modalities different from the trained MRI, such as electroanatomical mapping, and in addition, allows us to generate new anatomical shapes by randomly sampling latent vectors.
The eikonal equation has become an indispensable tool for modeling cardiac electrical activation accurately and efficiently. In principle, by matching clinically recorded and eikonal-based electrocardiograms (ECGs), it is possible to build patient-specific models of cardiac electrophysiology in a purely non-invasive manner. Nonetheless, the fitting procedure remains a challenging task. The present study introduces a novel method, Geodesic-BP, to solve the inverse eikonal problem. Geodesic-BP is well-suited for GPU-accelerated machine learning frameworks, allowing us to optimize the parameters of the eikonal equation to reproduce a given ECG. We show that Geodesic-BP can reconstruct a simulated cardiac activation with high accuracy in a synthetic test case, even in the presence of modeling inaccuracies. Furthermore, we apply our algorithm to a publicly available dataset of a rabbit model, with very positive results. Given the future shift towards personalized medicine, Geodesic-BP has the potential to help in future functionalizations of cardiac models meeting clinical time constraints while maintaining the physiological accuracy of state-of-the-art cardiac models.