Get our free extension to see links to code for papers anywhere online!Free add-on: code for papers everywhere!Free add-on: See code for papers anywhere!

Abstract:In supervised learning, understanding an input's proximity to the training data can help a model decide whether it has sufficient evidence for reaching a reliable prediction. While powerful probabilistic models such as Gaussian Processes naturally have this property, deep neural networks often lack it. In this paper, we introduce Distance Aware Bottleneck (DAB), i.e., a new method for enriching deep neural networks with this property. Building on prior information bottleneck approaches, our method learns a codebook that stores a compressed representation of all inputs seen during training. The distance of a new example from this codebook can serve as an uncertainty estimate for the example. The resulting model is simple to train and provides deterministic uncertainty estimates by a single forward pass. Finally, our method achieves better out-of-distribution (OOD) detection and misclassification prediction than prior methods, including expensive ensemble methods, deep kernel Gaussian Processes, and approaches based on the standard information bottleneck.

Via

Authors:Frank Nielsen

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:The Fisher-Rao distance between two probability distributions of a statistical model is defined as the Riemannian geodesic distance induced by the Fisher information metric. In order to calculate the Fisher-Rao distance in closed-form, we need (1) to elicit a formula for the Fisher-Rao geodesics, and (2) to integrate the Fisher length element along those geodesics. We consider several numerically robust approximation and bounding techniques for the Fisher-Rao distances: First, we report generic upper bounds on Fisher-Rao distances based on closed-form 1D Fisher-Rao distances of submodels. Second, we describe several generic approximation schemes depending on whether the Fisher-Rao geodesics or pregeodesics are available in closed-form or not. In particular, we obtain a generic method to guarantee an arbitrarily small additive error on the approximation provided that Fisher-Rao pregeodesics and tight lower and upper bounds are available. Third, we consider the case of Fisher metrics being Hessian metrics, and report generic tight upper bounds on the Fisher-Rao distances using techniques of information geometry. Uniparametric and biparametric statistical models always have Fisher Hessian metrics, and in general a simple test allows to check whether the Fisher information matrix yields a Hessian metric or not. Fourth, we consider elliptical distribution families and show how to apply the above techniques to these models. We also propose two new distances based either on the Fisher-Rao lengths of curves serving as proxies of Fisher-Rao geodesics, or based on the Birkhoff/Hilbert projective cone distance. Last, we consider an alternative group-theoretic approach for statistical transformation models based on the notion of maximal invariant which yields insights on the structures of the Fisher-Rao distance formula which may be used fruitfully in applications.

Via

Abstract:Most mathematical distortions used in ML are fundamentally integral in nature: $f$-divergences, Bregman divergences, (regularized) optimal transport distances, integral probability metrics, geodesic distances, etc. In this paper, we unveil a grounded theory and tools which can help improve these distortions to better cope with ML requirements. We start with a generalization of Riemann integration that also encapsulates functions that are not strictly additive but are, more generally, $t$-additive, as in nonextensive statistical mechanics. Notably, this recovers Volterra's product integral as a special case. We then generalize the Fundamental Theorem of calculus using an extension of the (Euclidean) derivative. This, along with a series of more specific Theorems, serves as a basis for results showing how one can specifically design, alter, or change fundamental properties of distortion measures in a simple way, with a special emphasis on geometric- and ML-related properties that are the metricity, hyperbolicity, and encoding. We show how to apply it to a problem that has recently gained traction in ML: hyperbolic embeddings with a "cheap" and accurate encoding along the hyperbolic vs Euclidean scale. We unveil a new application for which the Poincar\'e disk model has very appealing features, and our theory comes in handy: \textit{model} embeddings for boosted combinations of decision trees, trained using the log-loss (trees) and logistic loss (combinations).

Via

Authors:Frank Nielsen

Abstract:Exponential families are statistical models which are the workhorses in statistics, information theory, and machine learning. An exponential family can either be normalized subtractively by its cumulant function or equivalently normalized divisively by its partition function. Both subtractive and divisive normalizers are strictly convex and smooth functions inducing pairs of Bregman and Jensen divergences. It is well-known that skewed Bhattacharryya distances between probability densities of an exponential family amounts to skewed Jensen divergences induced by the cumulant function between their corresponding natural parameters, and in limit cases that the sided Kullback-Leibler divergences amount to reverse-sided Bregman divergences. In this note, we first show that the $\alpha$-divergences between unnormalized densities of an exponential family amounts scaled $\alpha$-skewed Jensen divergences induced by the partition function. We then show how comparative convexity with respect to a pair of quasi-arithmetic means allows to deform convex functions and define dually flat spaces with corresponding divergences when ordinary convexity is preserved.

Via

Abstract:Tempered Exponential Measures (TEMs) are a parametric generalization of the exponential family of distributions maximizing the tempered entropy function among positive measures subject to a probability normalization of their power densities. Calculus on TEMs relies on a deformed algebra of arithmetic operators induced by the deformed logarithms used to define the tempered entropy. In this work, we introduce three different parameterizations of finite discrete TEMs via Legendre functions of the negative tempered entropy function. In particular, we establish an isometry between such parameterizations in terms of a generalization of the Hilbert log cross-ratio simplex distance to a tempered Hilbert co-simplex distance. Similar to the Hilbert geometry, the tempered Hilbert distance is characterized as a $t$-symmetrization of the oriented tempered Funk distance. We motivate our construction by introducing the notion of $t$-lengths of smooth curves in a tautological Finsler manifold. We then demonstrate the properties of our generalized structure in different settings and numerically examine the quality of its differentiable approximations for optimization in machine learning settings.

Via

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:In the field of optimal transport, two prominent subfields face each other: (i) unregularized optimal transport, ``\`a-la-Kantorovich'', which leads to extremely sparse plans but with algorithms that scale poorly, and (ii) entropic-regularized optimal transport, ``\`a-la-Sinkhorn-Cuturi'', which gets near-linear approximation algorithms but leads to maximally un-sparse plans. In this paper, we show that a generalization of the latter to tempered exponential measures, a generalization of exponential families with indirect measure normalization, gets to a very convenient middle ground, with both very fast approximation algorithms and sparsity which is under control up to sparsity patterns. In addition, it fits naturally in the unbalanced optimal transport problem setting as well.

Via

Authors:Frank Nielsen

Abstract:Data sets of multivariate normal distributions abound in many scientific areas like diffusion tensor imaging, structure tensor computer vision, radar signal processing, machine learning, just to name a few. In order to process those normal data sets for downstream tasks like filtering, classification or clustering, one needs to define proper notions of dissimilarities between normals and paths joining them. The Fisher-Rao distance defined as the Riemannian geodesic distance induced by the Fisher information metric is such a principled metric distance which however is not known in closed-form excepts for a few particular cases. In this work, we first report a fast and robust method to approximate arbitrarily finely the Fisher-Rao distance between multivariate normal distributions. Second, we introduce a class of distances based on diffeomorphic embeddings of the normal manifold into a submanifold of the higher-dimensional symmetric positive-definite cone corresponding to the manifold of centered normal distributions. We show that the projective Hilbert distance on the cone yields a metric on the embedded normal submanifold and we pullback that cone distance with its associated straight line Hilbert cone geodesics to obtain a distance and smooth paths between normal distributions. Compared to the Fisher-Rao distance approximation, the pullback Hilbert cone distance is computationally light since it requires to compute only the extreme minimal and maximal eigenvalues of matrices. Finally, we show how to use those distances in clustering tasks.

Via

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:The estimation of probability density functions is a non trivial task that over the last years has been tackled with machine learning techniques. Successful applications can be obtained using models inspired by the Boltzmann machine (BM) architecture. In this manuscript, the product Jacobi-Theta Boltzmann machine (pJTBM) is introduced as a restricted version of the Riemann-Theta Boltzmann machine (RTBM) with diagonal hidden sector connection matrix. We show that score matching, based on the Fisher divergence, can be used to fit probability densities with the pJTBM more efficiently than with the original RTBM.

Via

Authors:Frank Nielsen

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:We present a simple method to approximate Rao's distance between multivariate normal distributions based on discretizing curves joining normal distributions and approximating Rao distances between successive nearby normal distributions on the curve by Jeffreys divergence. We consider experimentally the linear interpolation curves in the ordinary, natural and expectation parameterizations of the normal distributions, and compare these curves with a curve derived from the Calvo and Oller's isometric embedding of the Fisher-Rao $d$-variate normal manifold into the cone of $(d+1)\times (d+1)$ symmetric positive-definite matrices [Journal of multivariate analysis 35.2 (1990): 223-242]. We report on our experiments and assess the quality of our approximation technique by comparing the numerical approximations with lower and upper bounds. Finally, we present some information-geometric properties of the Calvo and Oller's isometric embedding.

Via

Authors:Wu Lin, Valentin Duruisseaux, Melvin Leok, Frank Nielsen, Mohammad Emtiyaz Khan, Mark Schmidt

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:Riemannian submanifold optimization with momentum is computationally challenging because ensuring iterates remain on the submanifold often requires solving difficult differential equations. We simplify such optimization algorithms for the submanifold of symmetric positive-definite matrices with the affine invariant metric. We propose a generalized version of the Riemannian normal coordinates which dynamically trivializes the problem into a Euclidean unconstrained problem. We use our approach to explain and simplify existing approaches for structured covariances and develop efficient second-order optimizers for deep learning without explicit matrix inverses.

Via