In this paper we present a technique of NLP to tackle the problem of inference relation (NLI) between pairs of sentences in a target language of choice without a language-specific training dataset. We exploit a generic translation dataset, manually translated, along with two instances of the same pre-trained model - the first to generate sentence embeddings for the source language, and the second fine-tuned over the target language to mimic the first. This technique is known as Knowledge Distillation. The model has been evaluated over machine translated Stanford NLI test dataset, machine translated Multi-Genre NLI test dataset, and manually translated RTE3-ITA test dataset. We also test the proposed architecture over different tasks to empirically demonstrate the generality of the NLI task. The model has been evaluated over the native Italian ABSITA dataset, on the tasks of Sentiment Analysis, Aspect-Based Sentiment Analysis, and Topic Recognition. We emphasise the generality and exploitability of the Knowledge Distillation technique that outperforms other methodologies based on machine translation, even though the former was not directly trained on the data it was tested over.
Markerless Human Pose Estimation (HPE) proved its potential to support decision making and assessment in many fields of application. HPE is often preferred to traditional marker-based Motion Capture systems due to the ease of setup, portability, and affordable cost of the technology. However, the exploitation of HPE in biomedical applications is still under investigation. This review aims to provide an overview of current biomedical applications of HPE. In this paper, we examine the main features of HPE approaches and discuss whether or not those features are of interest to biomedical applications. We also identify those areas where HPE is already in use and present peculiarities and trends followed by researchers and practitioners. We include here 25 approaches to HPE and more than 40 studies of HPE applied to motor development assessment, neuromuscolar rehabilitation, and gait & posture analysis. We conclude that markerless HPE offers great potential for extending diagnosis and rehabilitation outside hospitals and clinics, toward the paradigm of remote medical care.
We propose a solution for Active Visual Search of objects in an environment, whose 2D floor map is the only known information. Our solution has three key features that make it more plausible and robust to detector failures compared to state-of-the-art methods: (i) it is unsupervised as it does not need any training sessions. (ii) During the exploration, a probability distribution on the 2D floor map is updated according to an intuitive mechanism, while an improved belief update increases the effectiveness of the agent's exploration. (iii) We incorporate the awareness that an object detector may fail into the aforementioned probability modelling by exploiting the success statistics of a specific detector. Our solution is dubbed POMP-BE-PD (Pomcp-based Online Motion Planning with Belief by Exploration and Probabilistic Detection). It uses the current pose of an agent and an RGB-D observation to learn an optimal search policy, exploiting a POMDP solved by a Monte-Carlo planning approach. On the Active Vision Database benchmark, we increase the average success rate over all the environments by a significant 35% while decreasing the average path length by 4% with respect to competing methods. Thus, our results are state-of-the-art, even without using any training procedure.
This work makes a substantial step in the field of split computing, i.e., how to split a deep neural network to host its early part on an embedded device and the rest on a server. So far, potential split locations have been identified exploiting uniquely architectural aspects, i.e., based on the layer sizes. Under this paradigm, the efficacy of the split in terms of accuracy can be evaluated only after having performed the split and retrained the entire pipeline, making an exhaustive evaluation of all the plausible splitting points prohibitive in terms of time. Here we show that not only the architecture of the layers does matter, but the importance of the neurons contained therein too. A neuron is important if its gradient with respect to the correct class decision is high. It follows that a split should be applied right after a layer with a high density of important neurons, in order to preserve the information flowing until then. Upon this idea, we propose Interpretable Split (I-SPLIT): a procedure that identifies the most suitable splitting points by providing a reliable prediction on how well this split will perform in terms of classification accuracy, beforehand of its effective implementation. As a further major contribution of I-SPLIT, we show that the best choice for the splitting point on a multiclass categorization problem depends also on which specific classes the network has to deal with. Exhaustive experiments have been carried out on two networks, VGG16 and ResNet-50, and three datasets, Tiny-Imagenet-200, notMNIST, and Chest X-Ray Pneumonia. The source code is available at https://github.com/vips4/I-Split.
In this paper we focus on the problem of learning online an optimal policy for Active Visual Search (AVS) of objects in unknown indoor environments. We propose POMP++, a planning strategy that introduces a novel formulation on top of the classic Partially Observable Monte Carlo Planning (POMCP) framework, to allow training-free online policy learning in unknown environments. We present a new belief reinvigoration strategy which allows to use POMCP with a dynamically growing state space to address the online generation of the floor map. We evaluate our method on two public benchmark datasets, AVD that is acquired by real robotic platforms and Habitat ObjectNav that is rendered from real 3D scene scans, achieving the best success rate with an improvement of >10% over the state-of-the-art methods.
For an autonomous robotic system, monitoring surgeon actions and assisting the main surgeon during a procedure can be very challenging. The challenges come from the peculiar structure of the surgical scene, the greater similarity in appearance of actions performed via tools in a cavity compared to, say, human actions in unconstrained environments, as well as from the motion of the endoscopic camera. This paper presents ESAD, the first large-scale dataset designed to tackle the problem of surgeon action detection in endoscopic minimally invasive surgery. ESAD aims at contributing to increase the effectiveness and reliability of surgical assistant robots by realistically testing their awareness of the actions performed by a surgeon. The dataset provides bounding box annotation for 21 action classes on real endoscopic video frames captured during prostatectomy, and was used as the basis of a recent MIDL 2020 challenge. We also present an analysis of the dataset conducted using the baseline model which was released as part of the challenge, and a description of the top performing models submitted to the challenge together with the results they obtained. This study provides significant insight into what approaches can be effective and can be extended further. We believe that ESAD will serve in the future as a useful benchmark for all researchers active in surgeon action detection and assistive robotics at large.
In this paper we focus on the problem of learning an optimal policy for Active Visual Search (AVS) of objects in known indoor environments with an online setup. Our POMP method uses as input the current pose of an agent (e.g. a robot) and a RGB-D frame. The task is to plan the next move that brings the agent closer to the target object. We model this problem as a Partially Observable Markov Decision Process solved by a Monte-Carlo planning approach. This allows us to make decisions on the next moves by iterating over the known scenario at hand, exploring the environment and searching for the object at the same time. Differently from the current state of the art in Reinforcement Learning, POMP does not require extensive and expensive (in time and computation) labelled data so being very agile in solving AVS in small and medium real scenarios. We only require the information of the floormap of the environment, an information usually available or that can be easily extracted from an a priori single exploration run. We validate our method on the publicly available AVD benchmark, achieving an average success rate of 0.76 with an average path length of 17.1, performing close to the state of the art but without any training needed. Additionally, we show experimentally the robustness of our method when the quality of the object detection goes from ideal to faulty.
In this work, we take aim towards increasing the effectiveness of surgical assistant robots. We intended to make assistant robots safer by making them aware about the actions of surgeon, so it can take appropriate assisting actions. In other words, we aim to solve the problem of surgeon action detection in endoscopic videos. To this, we introduce a challenging dataset for surgeon action detection in real-world endoscopic videos. Action classes are picked based on the feedback of surgeons and annotated by medical professional. Given a video frame, we draw bounding box around surgical tool which is performing action and label it with action label. Finally, we presenta frame-level action detection baseline model based on recent advances in ob-ject detection. Results on our new dataset show that our presented dataset provides enough interesting challenges for future method and it can serveas strong benchmark corresponding research in surgeon action detection in endoscopic videos.
One of the main and most effective measures to contain the recent viral outbreak is the maintenance of the so-called Social Distancing (SD). To comply with this constraint, workplaces, public institutions, transports and schools will likely adopt restrictions over the minimum inter-personal distance between people. Given this actual scenario, it is crucial to massively measure the compliance to such physical constraint in our life, in order to figure out the reasons of the possible breaks of such distance limitations, and understand if this implies a possible threat given the scene context. All of this, complying with privacy policies and making the measurement acceptable. To this end, we introduce the Visual Social Distancing (VSD) problem, defined as the automatic estimation of the inter-personal distance from an image, and the characterization of the related people aggregations. VSD is pivotal for a non-invasive analysis to whether people comply with the SD restriction, and to provide statistics about the level of safety of specific areas whenever this constraint is violated. We then discuss how VSD relates with previous literature in Social Signal Processing and indicate which existing Computer Vision methods can be used to manage such problem. We conclude with future challenges related to the effectiveness of VSD systems, ethical implications and future application scenarios.
In this work, we explore the correlation between people trajectories and their head orientations. We argue that people trajectory and head pose forecasting can be modelled as a joint problem. Recent approaches on trajectory forecasting leverage short-term trajectories (aka tracklets) of pedestrians to predict their future paths. In addition, sociological cues, such as expected destination or pedestrian interaction, are often combined with tracklets. In this paper, we propose MiXing-LSTM (MX-LSTM) to capture the interplay between positions and head orientations (vislets) thanks to a joint unconstrained optimization of full covariance matrices during the LSTM backpropagation. We additionally exploit the head orientations as a proxy for the visual attention, when modeling social interactions. MX-LSTM predicts future pedestrians location and head pose, increasing the standard capabilities of the current approaches on long-term trajectory forecasting. Compared to the state-of-the-art, our approach shows better performances on an extensive set of public benchmarks. MX-LSTM is particularly effective when people move slowly, i.e. the most challenging scenario for all other models. The proposed approach also allows for accurate predictions on a longer time horizon.