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Alireza Maleki, Ha H. Nguyen, Ebrahim Bedeer, Robert Barton

Chirps spread spectrum (CSS) modulation is the heart of long-range (LoRa) modulation used in the context of long-range wide area network (LoRaWAN) in internet of things (IoT) scenarios. Despite being a proprietary technology owned by Semtech Corp., LoRa modulation has drawn much attention from the research and industry communities in recent years. However, to the best of our knowledge, a comprehensive tutorial, investigating the CSS modulation in the LoRaWAN application, is missing in the literature. Therefore, in the first part of this paper, we provide a thorough analysis and tutorial of CSS modulation modified by LoRa specifications, discussing various aspects such as signal generation, detection, error performance, and spectral characteristics. Moreover, a summary of key recent advances in the context of CSS modulation applications in IoT networks is presented in the second part of this paper under four main categories of transceiver configuration and design, data rate improvement, interference modeling, and synchronization algorithms.

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Minh Ngoc Luu, Minh-Duong Nguyen, Ebrahim Bedeer, Van Duc Nguyen, Dinh Thai Hoang, Diep N. Nguyen, Quoc-Viet Pham

In the domain of Federated Learning (FL) systems, recent cutting-edge methods heavily rely on ideal conditions convergence analysis. Specifically, these approaches assume that the training datasets on IoT devices possess similar attributes to the global data distribution. However, this approach fails to capture the full spectrum of data characteristics in real-time sensing FL systems. In order to overcome this limitation, we suggest a new approach system specifically designed for IoT networks with real-time sensing capabilities. Our approach takes into account the generalization gap due to the user's data sampling process. By effectively controlling this sampling process, we can mitigate the overfitting issue and improve overall accuracy. In particular, We first formulate an optimization problem that harnesses the sampling process to concurrently reduce overfitting while maximizing accuracy. In pursuit of this objective, our surrogate optimization problem is adept at handling energy efficiency while optimizing the accuracy with high generalization. To solve the optimization problem with high complexity, we introduce an online reinforcement learning algorithm, named Sample-driven Control for Federated Learning (SCFL) built on the Soft Actor-Critic (A2C) framework. This enables the agent to dynamically adapt and find the global optima even in changing environments. By leveraging the capabilities of SCFL, our system offers a promising solution for resource allocation in FL systems with real-time sensing capabilities.

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Simin Keykhosravi, Ebrahim Bedeer

Being capable of enhancing the spectral efficiency (SE), faster-than-Nyquist (FTN) signaling is a promising approach for wireless communication systems. This paper investigates the doubly-selective (i.e., time- and frequency-selective) channel estimation and data detection of FTN signaling. We consider the intersymbol interference (ISI) resulting from both the FTN signaling and the frequency-selective channel and adopt an efficient frame structure with reduced overhead. We propose a novel channel estimation technique of FTN signaling based on the least sum of squared errors (LSSE) approach to estimate the complex channel coefficients at the pilot locations within the frame. In particular, we find the optimal pilot sequence that minimizes the mean square error (MSE) of the channel estimation. To address the time-selective nature of the channel, we use a low-complexity linear interpolation to track the complex channel coefficients at the data symbols locations within the frame. To detect the data symbols of FTN signaling, we adopt a turbo equalization technique based on a linear soft-input soft-output (SISO) minimum mean square error (MMSE) equalizer. Simulation results show that the MSE of the proposed FTN signaling channel estimation employing the designed optimal pilot sequence is lower than its counterpart designed for conventional Nyquist transmission. The bit error rate (BER) of the FTN signaling employing the proposed optimal pilot sequence shows improvement compared to the FTN signaling employing the conventional Nyquist pilot sequence. Additionally, for the same SE, the proposed FTN signaling channel estimation employing the designed optimal pilot sequence shows better performance when compared to competing techniques from the literature.

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Son T. Duong, Ha H. Nguyen, Ebrahim Bedeer, Robert Barton

In this paper, we propose a novel multi-symbol unitary constellation structure for non-coherent single-input multiple-output (SIMO) communications over block Rayleigh fading channels. To facilitate the design and the detection of large unitary constellations at reduced complexity, the proposed constellations are constructed as the Cartesian product of independent amplitude and phase-shift-keying (PSK) vectors, and hence, can be iteratively detected. The amplitude vector can be detected by exhaustive search, whose complexity is still sufficiently low in short packet transmissions. For detection of the PSK vector, we adopt a maximum-A-posteriori (MAP) criterion to improve the reliability of the sorted decision-feedback differential detection (sort-DFDD), which results in near-optimal error performance in the case of the same modulation order of the transmit PSK symbols at different time slots. This detector is called MAP-based-reliability-sort-DFDD (MAP-R-sort-DFDD) and has polynomial complexity. For the case of different modulation orders at different time slots, we observe that undetected symbols with lower modulation orders have a significant impact on the detection of PSK symbols with higher modulation orders. We exploit this observation and propose an improved detector called improved-MAP-R-sort-DFDD, which approaches the optimal error performance with polynomial time complexity. Simulation results show the merits of our proposed multi-symbol unitary constellation when compared to competing low-complexity unitary constellations.

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Alireza Maleki, Ha H. Nguyen, Ebrahim Bedeer, Robert Barton

In this paper, we present a device-to-device (D2D) transmission scheme for aiding long-range frequency hopping spread spectrum (LR-FHSS) LoRaWAN protocol with application in direct-to-satellite IoT networks. We consider a practical ground-to-satellite fading model, i.e. shadowed-Rice channel, and derive the outage performance of the LR-FHSS network. With the help of network coding, D2D-aided LR-FHSS transmission scheme is proposed to improve the network capacity for which a closed-form outage probability expression is also derived. The obtained analytical expressions for both LR-FHSS and D2D-aided LR-FHSS outage probabilities are validated by computer simulations for different parts of the analysis capturing the effects of noise, fading, unslotted ALOHA-based time scheduling, the receiver's capture effect, IoT device distributions, and distance from node to satellite. The total outage probability for the D2D-aided LR-FHSS shows a considerable increase of 249.9% and 150.1% in network capacity at a typical outage of 10^-2 for DR6 and DR5, respectively, when compared to LR-FHSS. This is obtained at the cost of minimum of one and maximum of two additional transmissions per each IoT end device imposed by the D2D scheme in each time-slot.

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Son T. Duong, Ha H. Nguyen, Ebrahim Bedeer

This paper investigates non-coherent detection of single-input multiple-output (SIMO) systems over block Rayleigh fading channels. Using the Kullback-Leibler divergence as the design criterion, we formulate a multiple-symbol constellation optimization problem, which turns out to have high computational complexity to construct and detect. We exploit the structure of the formulated problem and decouple it into a unitary constellation design and a multi-level design. The proposed multi-level design has low complexity in both construction and detection. Simulation results show that our multi-level design has better performance than traditional pilot-based schemes and other existing low-complexity multi-level designs.

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Adem Cicek, Enver Cavus, Ebrahim Bedeer, Ian Marsland, Halim Yanikomeroglu

Faster-than-Nyquist (FTN) signaling is an attractive transmission technique which accelerates data symbols beyond the Nyquist rate to improve the spectral efficiency; however, at the expense of higher computational complexity to remove the introduced intersymbol interference (ISI). In this work, we introduce a novel FTN signaling transmission technique, named coordinate interleaved FTN (CI-FTN) signaling that exploits the ISI at the transmitter to generate constructive interference for every pair of the counter-clockwise rotated binary phase shift keying (BPSK) data symbols. In particular, the proposed CI- FTN signaling interleaves the in-phase (I) and the quadrature (Q) components of the counter-clockwise rotated BPSK symbols to guarantee that every pair of consecutive symbols has the same sign, and hence, has constructive ISI. At the receiver, we propose a low-complexity detector that makes use of the constructive ISI introduced at the transmitter. Simulation results show the merits of the CI-FTN signaling and the proposed low-complexity detector compared to conventional Nyquist and FTN signaling.

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Sina Abbasi, Ebrahim Bedeer

Faster-than-Nyquist (FTN) signaling can improve the spectral efficiency (SE); however, at the expense of high computational complexity to remove the introduced intersymbol interference (ISI). Motivated by the recent success of ML in physical layer (PHY) problems, in this paper we investigate the use of ML in reducing the detection complexity of FTN signaling. In particular, we view the FTN signaling detection problem as a classification task, where the received signal is considered as an unlabeled class sample that belongs to a set of all possible classes samples. If we use an off-shelf classifier, then the set of all possible classes samples belongs to an $N$-dimensional space, where $N$ is the transmission block length, which has a huge computational complexity. We propose a low-complexity classifier (LCC) that exploits the ISI structure of FTN signaling to perform the classification task in $N_p \ll N$-dimension space. The proposed LCC consists of two stages: 1) offline pre-classification that constructs the labeled classes samples in the $N_p$-dimensional space and 2) online classification where the detection of the received samples occurs. The proposed LCC is extended to produce soft-outputs as well. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed LCC in balancing performance and complexity.

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Sina Abbasi, Ebrahim Bedeer

Faster-than-Nyquist (FTN) signaling is a candidate non-orthonormal transmission technique to improve the spectral efficiency (SE) of future communication systems. However, such improvements of the SE are at the cost of additional computational complexity to remove the intentionally introduced intersymbol interference. In this paper, we investigate the use of deep learning (DL) to reduce the detection complexity of FTN signaling. To eliminate the need of having a noise whitening filter at the receiver, we first present an equivalent FTN signaling model based on using a set of orthonormal basis functions and identify its operation region. Second, we propose a DL-based list sphere decoding (DL-LSD) algorithm that selects and updates the initial radius of the original LSD to guarantee a pre-defined number $N_{\text{L}}$ of lattice points inside the hypersphere. This is achieved by training a neural network to output an approximate initial radius that includes $N_{\text{L}}$ lattice points. At the testing phase, if the hypersphere has more than $N_{\text{L}}$ lattice points, we keep the $N_{\text{L}}$ closest points to the point corresponding to the received FTN signal; however, if the hypersphere has less than $N_{\text{L}}$ points, we increase the approximate initial radius by a value that depends on the standard deviation of the distribution of the output radii from the training phase. Then, the approximate value of the log-likelihood ratio (LLR) is calculated based on the obtained $N_{\text{L}}$ points. Simulation results show that the computational complexity of the proposed DL-LSD is lower than its counterpart of the original LSD by orders of magnitude.

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Botao Zhu, Ebrahim Bedeer, Ha H. Nguyen, Robert Barton, Jerome Henry

Employing unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has attracted growing interests and emerged as the state-of-the-art technology for data collection in Internet-of-Things (IoT) networks. In this paper, with the objective of minimizing the total energy consumption of the UAV-IoT system, we formulate the problem of jointly designing the UAV's trajectory and selecting cluster heads in the IoT network as a constrained combinatorial optimization problem which is classified as NP-hard and challenging to solve. We propose a novel deep reinforcement learning (DRL) with a sequential model strategy that can effectively learn the policy represented by a sequence-to-sequence neural network for the UAV's trajectory design in an unsupervised manner. Through extensive simulations, the obtained results show that the proposed DRL method can find the UAV's trajectory that requires much less energy consumption when compared to other baseline algorithms and achieves close-to-optimal performance. In addition, simulation results show that the trained model by our proposed DRL algorithm has an excellent generalization ability to larger problem sizes without the need to retrain the model.

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