In the scenario of class-incremental learning (CIL), deep neural networks have to adapt their model parameters to non-stationary data distributions, e.g., the emergence of new classes over time. However, CIL models are challenged by the well-known catastrophic forgetting phenomenon. Typical methods such as rehearsal-based ones rely on storing exemplars of old classes to mitigate catastrophic forgetting, which limits real-world applications considering memory resources and privacy issues. In this paper, we propose a novel rehearsal-free CIL approach that learns continually via the synergy between two Complementary Learning Subnetworks. Our approach involves jointly optimizing a plastic CNN feature extractor and an analytical feed-forward classifier. The inaccessibility of historical data is tackled by holistically controlling the parameters of a well-trained model, ensuring that the decision boundary learned fits new classes while retaining recognition of previously learned classes. Specifically, the trainable CNN feature extractor provides task-dependent knowledge separately without interference; and the final classifier integrates task-specific knowledge incrementally for decision-making without forgetting. In each CIL session, it accommodates new tasks by attaching a tiny set of declarative parameters to its backbone, in which only one matrix per task or one vector per class is kept for knowledge retention. Extensive experiments on a variety of task sequences show that our method achieves competitive results against state-of-the-art methods, especially in accuracy gain, memory cost, training efficiency, and task-order robustness. Furthermore, to make the non-growing backbone (i.e., a model with limited network capacity) suffice to train on more incoming tasks, a graceful forgetting implementation on previously learned trivial tasks is empirically investigated.
Continual learning can incrementally absorb new concepts without interfering with previously learned knowledge. Motivated by the characteristics of neural networks, in which information is stored in weights on connections, we investigated how to design an Innately Forgetting-Free Network (IF2Net) for continual learning context. This study proposed a straightforward yet effective learning paradigm by ingeniously keeping the weights relative to each seen task untouched before and after learning a new task. We first presented the novel representation-level learning on task sequences with random weights. This technique refers to tweaking the drifted representations caused by randomization back to their separate task-optimal working states, but the involved weights are frozen and reused (opposite to well-known layer-wise updates of weights). Then, sequential decision-making without forgetting can be achieved by projecting the output weight updates into the parsimonious orthogonal space, making the adaptations not disturb old knowledge while maintaining model plasticity. IF2Net allows a single network to inherently learn unlimited mapping rules without telling task identities at test time by integrating the respective strengths of randomization and orthogonalization. We validated the effectiveness of our approach in the extensive theoretical analysis and empirical study.
Multi-view learning (MVL) has gained great success in integrating information from multiple perspectives of a dataset to improve downstream task performance. To make MVL methods more practical in an open-ended environment, this paper investigates a novel paradigm called multi-view class incremental learning (MVCIL), where a single model incrementally classifies new classes from a continual stream of views, requiring no access to earlier views of data. However, MVCIL is challenged by the catastrophic forgetting of old information and the interference with learning new concepts. To address this, we first develop a randomization-based representation learning technique serving for feature extraction to guarantee their separate view-optimal working states, during which multiple views belonging to a class are presented sequentially; Then, we integrate them one by one in the orthogonality fusion subspace spanned by the extracted features; Finally, we introduce selective weight consolidation for learning-without-forgetting decision-making while encountering new classes. Extensive experiments on synthetic and real-world datasets validate the effectiveness of our approach.