We introduce a physics-informed Bayesian Neural Network (BNN) with flow approximated posteriors using multiplicative normalizing flows (MNF) for detailed uncertainty quantification (UQ) at the physics event-level. Our method is capable of identifying both heteroskedastic aleatoric and epistemic uncertainties, providing granular physical insights. Applied to Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) events, our model effectively extracts the kinematic variables $x$, $Q^2$, and $y$, matching the performance of recent deep learning regression techniques but with the critical enhancement of event-level UQ. This detailed description of the underlying uncertainty proves invaluable for decision-making, especially in tasks like event filtering. It also allows for the reduction of true inaccuracies without directly accessing the ground truth. A thorough DIS simulation using the H1 detector at HERA indicates possible applications for the future EIC. Additionally, this paves the way for related tasks such as data quality monitoring and anomaly detection. Remarkably, our approach effectively processes large samples at high rates.
Artificial Intelligence (AI) for design is a relatively new but active area of research across many disciplines. Surprisingly when it comes to designing detectors with AI this is an area at its infancy. The Electron Ion Collider is the ultimate machine to study the strong force. The EIC is a large-scale experiment with an integrated detector that extends for about $\pm$35 meters to include the central, far-forward, and far-backward regions. The design of the central detector is made by multiple sub-detectors, each in principle characterized by a multidimensional design space and multiple design criteria also called objectives. Simulations with Geant4 are typically compute intensive, and the optimization of the detector design may include non-differentiable terms as well as noisy objectives. In this context, AI can offer state of the art solutions to solve complex combinatorial problems in an efficient way. In particular, one of the proto-collaborations, ECCE, has explored during the detector proposal the possibility of using multi-objective optimization to design the tracking system of the EIC detector. This document provides an overview of these techniques and recent progress made during the EIC detector proposal. Future high energy nuclear physics experiments can leverage AI-based strategies to design more efficient detectors by optimizing their performance driven by physics criteria and minimizing costs for their realization.
Advances in artificial intelligence/machine learning methods provide tools that have broad applicability in scientific research. These techniques are being applied across the diversity of nuclear physics research topics, leading to advances that will facilitate scientific discoveries and societal applications. This Review gives a snapshot of nuclear physics research which has been transformed by artificial intelligence and machine learning techniques.
Imaging Cherenkov detectors are largely used in modern nuclear and particle physics experiments where cutting-edge solutions are needed to face always more growing computing demands. This is a fertile ground for AI-based approaches and at present we are witnessing the onset of new highly efficient and fast applications. This paper focuses on novel directions with applications to Cherenkov detectors. In particular, recent advances on detector design and calibration, as well as particle identification are presented.
Imaging Cherenkov detectors are largely used for particle identification (PID) in nuclear and particle physics experiments, where developing fast reconstruction algorithms is becoming of paramount importance to allow for near real time calibration and data quality control, as well as to speed up offline analysis of large amount of data. In this paper we present DeepRICH, a novel deep learning algorithm for fast reconstruction which can be applied to different imaging Cherenkov detectors. The core of our architecture is a generative model which leverages on a custom Variational Auto-encoder (VAE) combined to Maximum Mean Discrepancy (MMD), with a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) extracting features from the space of the latent variables for classification. A thorough comparison with the simulation/reconstruction package FastDIRC is discussed in the text. DeepRICH has the advantage to bypass low-level details needed to build a likelihood, allowing for a sensitive improvement in computation time at potentially the same reconstruction performance of other established reconstruction algorithms. In the conclusions, we address the implications and potentialities of this work, discussing possible future extensions and generalization.