Action spotting in soccer videos is the task of identifying the specific time when a certain key action of the game occurs. Lately, it has received a large amount of attention and powerful methods have been introduced. Action spotting involves understanding the dynamics of the game, the complexity of events, and the variation of video sequences. Most approaches have focused on the latter, given that their models exploit the global visual features of the sequences. In this work, we focus on the former by (a) identifying and representing the players, referees, and goalkeepers as nodes in a graph, and by (b) modeling their temporal interactions as sequences of graphs. For the player identification, or player classification task, we obtain an accuracy of 97.72% in our annotated benchmark. For the action spotting task, our method obtains an overall performance of 57.83% average-mAP by combining it with other audiovisual modalities. This performance surpasses similar graph-based methods and has competitive results with heavy computing methods. Code and data are available at https://github.com/IPCV/soccer_action_spotting.
Editing and retouching facial attributes is a complex task that usually requires human artists to obtain photo-realistic results. Its applications are numerous and can be found in several contexts such as cosmetics or digital media retouching, to name a few. Recently, advancements in conditional generative modeling have shown astonishing results at modifying facial attributes in a realistic manner. However, current methods are still prone to artifacts, and focus on modifying global attributes like age and gender, or local mid-sized attributes like glasses or moustaches. In this work, we revisit a two-stage approach for retouching facial wrinkles and obtain results with unprecedented realism. First, a state of the art wrinkle segmentation network is used to detect the wrinkles within the facial region. Then, an inpainting module is used to remove the detected wrinkles, filling them in with a texture that is statistically consistent with the surrounding skin. To achieve this, we introduce a novel loss term that reuses the wrinkle segmentation network to penalize those regions that still contain wrinkles after the inpainting. We evaluate our method qualitatively and quantitatively, showing state of the art results for the task of wrinkle removal. Moreover, we introduce the first high-resolution dataset, named FFHQ-Wrinkles, to evaluate wrinkle detection methods.
Image inpainting refers to the restoration of an image with missing regions in a way that is not detectable by the observer. The inpainting regions can be of any size and shape. This is an ill-posed inverse problem that does not have a unique solution. In this work, we focus on learning-based image completion methods for multiple and diverse inpainting which goal is to provide a set of distinct solutions for a given damaged image. These methods capitalize on the probabilistic nature of certain generative models to sample various solutions that coherently restore the missing content. Along the chapter, we will analyze the underlying theory and analyze the recent proposals for multiple inpainting. To investigate the pros and cons of each method, we present quantitative and qualitative comparisons, on common datasets, regarding both the quality and the diversity of the set of inpainted solutions. Our analysis allows us to identify the most successful generative strategies in both inpainting quality and inpainting diversity. This task is closely related to the learning of an accurate probability distribution of images. Depending on the dataset in use, the challenges that entail the training of such a model will be discussed through the analysis.
Image colorization aims to add color information to a grayscale image in a realistic way. Recent methods mostly rely on deep learning strategies. While learning to automatically colorize an image, one can define well-suited objective functions related to the desired color output. Some of them are based on a specific type of error between the predicted image and ground truth one, while other losses rely on the comparison of perceptual properties. But, is the choice of the objective function that crucial, i.e., does it play an important role in the results? In this chapter, we aim to answer this question by analyzing the impact of the loss function on the estimated colorization results. To that goal, we review the different losses and evaluation metrics that are used in the literature. We then train a baseline network with several of the reviewed objective functions: classic L1 and L2 losses, as well as more complex combinations such as Wasserstein GAN and VGG-based LPIPS loss. Quantitative results show that the models trained with VGG-based LPIPS provide overall slightly better results for most evaluation metrics. Qualitative results exhibit more vivid colors when with Wasserstein GAN plus the L2 loss or again with the VGG-based LPIPS. Finally, the convenience of quantitative user studies is also discussed to overcome the difficulty of properly assessing on colorized images, notably for the case of old archive photographs where no ground truth is available.
Colorization is a process that converts a grayscale image into a color one that looks as natural as possible. Over the years this task has received a lot of attention. Existing colorization methods rely on different color spaces: RGB, YUV, Lab, etc. In this chapter, we aim to study their influence on the results obtained by training a deep neural network, to answer the question: "Is it crucial to correctly choose the right color space in deep-learning based colorization?". First, we briefly summarize the literature and, in particular, deep learning-based methods. We then compare the results obtained with the same deep neural network architecture with RGB, YUV and Lab color spaces. Qualitative and quantitative analysis do not conclude similarly on which color space is better. We then show the importance of carefully designing the architecture and evaluation protocols depending on the types of images that are being processed and their specificities: strong/small contours, few/many objects, recent/archive images.
Orientation is a crucial skill for football players that becomes a differential factor in a large set of events, especially the ones involving passes. However, existing orientation estimation methods, which are based on computer-vision techniques, still have a lot of room for improvement. To the best of our knowledge, this article presents the first deep learning model for estimating orientation directly from video footage. By approaching this challenge as a classification problem where classes correspond to orientation bins, and by introducing a cyclic loss function, a well-known convolutional network is refined to provide player orientation data. The model is trained by using ground-truth orientation data obtained from wearable EPTS devices, which are individually compensated with respect to the perceived orientation in the current frame. The obtained results outperform previous methods; in particular, the absolute median error is less than 12 degrees per player. An ablation study is included in order to show the potential generalization to any kind of football video footage.
Flare spot is one type of flare artifact caused by a number of conditions, frequently provoked by one or more high-luminance sources within or close to the camera field of view. When light rays coming from a high-luminance source reach the front element of a camera, it can produce intra-reflections within camera elements that emerge at the film plane forming non-image information or flare on the captured image. Even though preventive mechanisms are used, artifacts can appear. In this paper, we propose a robust computational method to automatically detect and remove flare spot artifacts. Our contribution is threefold: firstly, we propose a characterization which is based on intrinsic properties that a flare spot is likely to satisfy; secondly, we define a new confidence measure able to select flare spots among the candidates; and, finally, a method to accurately determine the flare region is given. Then, the detected artifacts are removed by using exemplar-based inpainting. We show that our algorithm achieve top-tier quantitative and qualitative performance.
In a soccer game, the information provided by detecting and tracking brings crucial clues to further analyze and understand some tactical aspects of the game, including individual and team actions. State-of-the-art tracking algorithms achieve impressive results in scenarios on which they have been trained for, but they fail in challenging ones such as soccer games. This is frequently due to the player small relative size and the similar appearance among players of the same team. Although a straightforward solution would be to retrain these models by using a more specific dataset, the lack of such publicly available annotated datasets entails searching for other effective solutions. In this work, we propose a self-supervised pipeline which is able to detect and track low-resolution soccer players under different recording conditions without any need of ground-truth data. Extensive quantitative and qualitative experimental results are presented evaluating its performance. We also present a comparison to several state-of-the-art methods showing that both the proposed detector and the proposed tracker achieve top-tier results, in particular in the presence of small players.
Given a monocular video of a soccer match, this paper presents a computational model to estimate the most feasible pass at any given time. The method leverages offensive player's orientation (plus their location) and opponents' spatial configuration to compute the feasibility of pass events within players of the same team. Orientation data is gathered from body pose estimations that are properly projected onto the 2D game field; moreover, a geometrical solution is provided, through the definition of a feasibility measure, to determine which players are better oriented towards each other. Once analyzed more than 6000 pass events, results show that, by including orientation as a feasibility measure, a robust computational model can be built, reaching more than 0.7 Top-3 accuracy. Finally, the combination of the orientation feasibility measure with the recently introduced Expected Possession Value metric is studied; promising results are obtained, thus showing that existing models can be refined by using orientation as a key feature. These models could help both coaches and analysts to have a better understanding of the game and to improve the players' decision-making process.
Although orientation has proven to be a key skill of soccer players in order to succeed in a broad spectrum of plays, body orientation is a yet-little-explored area in sports analytics' research. Despite being an inherently ambiguous concept, player orientation can be defined as the projection (2D) of the normal vector placed in the center of the upper-torso of players (3D). This research presents a novel technique to obtain player orientation from monocular video recordings by mapping pose parts (shoulders and hips) in a 2D field by combining OpenPose with a super-resolution network, and merging the obtained estimation with contextual information (ball position). Results have been validated with players-held EPTS devices, obtaining a median error of 27 degrees/player. Moreover, three novel types of orientation maps are proposed in order to make raw orientation data easy to visualize and understand, thus allowing further analysis at team- or player-level.