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Zhaoliang Chen, Zhihao Wu, Ylli Sadikaj, Claudia Plant, Hong-Ning Dai, Shiping Wang, Wenzhong Guo

Although Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) have exhibited the powerful ability to gather graph-structured information from neighborhood nodes via various message-passing mechanisms, the performance of GNNs is limited by poor generalization and fragile robustness caused by noisy and redundant graph data. As a prominent solution, Graph Augmentation Learning (GAL) has recently received increasing attention. Among prior GAL approaches, edge-dropping methods that randomly remove edges from a graph during training are effective techniques to improve the robustness of GNNs. However, randomly dropping edges often results in bypassing critical edges, consequently weakening the effectiveness of message passing. In this paper, we propose a novel adversarial edge-dropping method (ADEdgeDrop) that leverages an adversarial edge predictor guiding the removal of edges, which can be flexibly incorporated into diverse GNN backbones. Employing an adversarial training framework, the edge predictor utilizes the line graph transformed from the original graph to estimate the edges to be dropped, which improves the interpretability of the edge-dropping method. The proposed ADEdgeDrop is optimized alternately by stochastic gradient descent and projected gradient descent. Comprehensive experiments on six graph benchmark datasets demonstrate that the proposed ADEdgeDrop outperforms state-of-the-art baselines across various GNN backbones, demonstrating improved generalization and robustness.

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Andreas Stephan, Lukas Miklautz, Kevin Sidak, Jan Philip Wahle, Bela Gipp, Claudia Plant, Benjamin Roth

Image clustering divides a collection of images into meaningful groups, typically interpreted post-hoc via human-given annotations. Those are usually in the form of text, begging the question of using text as an abstraction for image clustering. Current image clustering methods, however, neglect the use of generated textual descriptions. We, therefore, propose Text-Guided Image Clustering, i.e., generating text using image captioning and visual question-answering (VQA) models and subsequently clustering the generated text. Further, we introduce a novel approach to inject task- or domain knowledge for clustering by prompting VQA models. Across eight diverse image clustering datasets, our results show that the obtained text representations often outperform image features. Additionally, we propose a counting-based cluster explainability method. Our evaluations show that the derived keyword-based explanations describe clusters better than the respective cluster accuracy suggests. Overall, this research challenges traditional approaches and paves the way for a paradigm shift in image clustering, using generated text.

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Lena G. M. Bauer, Collin Leiber, Christian Böhm, Claudia Plant

Over the last decade, the Dip-test of unimodality has gained increasing interest in the data mining community as it is a parameter-free statistical test that reliably rates the modality in one-dimensional samples. It returns a so called Dip-value and a corresponding probability for the sample's unimodality (Dip-p-value). These two values share a sigmoidal relationship. However, the specific transformation is dependent on the sample size. Many Dip-based clustering algorithms use bootstrapped look-up tables translating Dip- to Dip-p-values for a certain limited amount of sample sizes. We propose a specifically designed sigmoid function as a substitute for these state-of-the-art look-up tables. This accelerates computation and provides an approximation of the Dip- to Dip-p-value transformation for every single sample size. Further, it is differentiable and can therefore easily be integrated in learning schemes using gradient descent. We showcase this by exploiting our function in a novel subspace clustering algorithm called Dip'n'Sub. We highlight in extensive experiments the various benefits of our proposal.

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Collin Leiber, Dominik Mautz, Claudia Plant, Christian Böhm

High-dimensional datasets often contain multiple meaningful clusterings in different subspaces. For example, objects can be clustered either by color, weight, or size, revealing different interpretations of the given dataset. A variety of approaches are able to identify such non-redundant clusterings. However, most of these methods require the user to specify the expected number of subspaces and clusters for each subspace. Stating these values is a non-trivial problem and usually requires detailed knowledge of the input dataset. In this paper, we propose a framework that utilizes the Minimum Description Length Principle (MDL) to detect the number of subspaces and clusters per subspace automatically. We describe an efficient procedure that greedily searches the parameter space by splitting and merging subspaces and clusters within subspaces. Additionally, an encoding strategy is introduced that allows us to detect outliers in each subspace. Extensive experiments show that our approach is highly competitive to state-of-the-art methods.

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Ylli Sadikaj, Yllka Velaj, Sahar Behzadi, Claudia Plant

Graph clustering aims at discovering a natural grouping of the nodes such that similar nodes are assigned to a common cluster. Many different algorithms have been proposed in the literature: for simple graphs, for graphs with attributes associated to nodes, and for graphs where edges represent different types of relations among nodes. However, complex data in many domains can be represented as both attributed and multi-relational networks. In this paper, we propose SpectralMix, a joint dimensionality reduction technique for multi-relational graphs with categorical node attributes. SpectralMix integrates all information available from the attributes, the different types of relations, and the graph structure to enable a sound interpretation of the clustering results. Moreover, it generalizes existing techniques: it reduces to spectral embedding and clustering when only applied to a single graph and to homogeneity analysis when applied to categorical data. Experiments conducted on several real-world datasets enable us to detect dependencies between graph structure and categorical attributes, moreover, they exhibit the superiority of SpectralMix over existing methods.

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Zhaoliang Chen, Zhihao Wu, Luying Zhong, Claudia Plant, Shiping Wang, Wenzhong Guo

Heterogeneous graph neural networks aim to discover discriminative node embeddings and relations from multi-relational networks.One challenge of heterogeneous graph learning is the design of learnable meta-paths, which significantly influences the quality of learned embeddings.Thus, in this paper, we propose an Attributed Multi-Order Graph Convolutional Network (AMOGCN), which automatically studies meta-paths containing multi-hop neighbors from an adaptive aggregation of multi-order adjacency matrices. The proposed model first builds different orders of adjacency matrices from manually designed node connections. After that, an intact multi-order adjacency matrix is attached from the automatic fusion of various orders of adjacency matrices. This process is supervised by the node semantic information, which is extracted from the node homophily evaluated by attributes. Eventually, we utilize a one-layer simplifying graph convolutional network with the learned multi-order adjacency matrix, which is equivalent to the cross-hop node information propagation with multi-layer graph neural networks. Substantial experiments reveal that AMOGCN gains superior semi-supervised classification performance compared with state-of-the-art competitors.

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Zhaoliang Chen, Zhihao Wu, Zhenghong Lin, Shiping Wang, Claudia Plant, Wenzhong Guo

Graph Convolutional Network (GCN) with the powerful capacity to explore graph-structural data has gained noticeable success in recent years. Nonetheless, most of the existing GCN-based models suffer from the notorious over-smoothing issue, owing to which shallow networks are extensively adopted. This may be problematic for complex graph datasets because a deeper GCN should be beneficial to propagating information across remote neighbors. Recent works have devoted effort to addressing over-smoothing problems, including establishing residual connection structure or fusing predictions from multi-layer models. Because of the indistinguishable embeddings from deep layers, it is reasonable to generate more reliable predictions before conducting the combination of outputs from various layers. In light of this, we propose an Alternating Graph-regularized Neural Network (AGNN) composed of Graph Convolutional Layer (GCL) and Graph Embedding Layer (GEL). GEL is derived from the graph-regularized optimization containing Laplacian embedding term, which can alleviate the over-smoothing problem by periodic projection from the low-order feature space onto the high-order space. With more distinguishable features of distinct layers, an improved Adaboost strategy is utilized to aggregate outputs from each layer, which explores integrated embeddings of multi-hop neighbors. The proposed model is evaluated via a large number of experiments including performance comparison with some multi-layer or multi-order graph neural networks, which reveals the superior performance improvement of AGNN compared with state-of-the-art models.

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Christina Pacher, Irene Schicker, Rosmarie deWit, Katerina Hlavackova-Schindler, Claudia Plant

Both clustering and outlier detection play an important role for meteorological measurements. We present the AWT algorithm, a clustering algorithm for time series data that also performs implicit outlier detection during the clustering. AWT integrates ideas of several well-known K-Means clustering algorithms. It chooses the number of clusters automatically based on a user-defined threshold parameter, and it can be used for heterogeneous meteorological input data as well as for data sets that exceed the available memory size. We apply AWT to crowd sourced 2-m temperature data with an hourly resolution from the city of Vienna to detect outliers and to investigate if the final clusters show general similarities and similarities with urban land-use characteristics. It is shown that both the outlier detection and the implicit mapping to land-use characteristic is possible with AWT which opens new possible fields of application, specifically in the rapidly evolving field of urban climate and urban weather.

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Zhaoliang Chen, Lele Fu, Shunxin Xiao, Shiping Wang, Claudia Plant, Wenzhong Guo

Multi-view data containing complementary and consensus information can facilitate representation learning by exploiting the intact integration of multi-view features. Because most objects in real world often have underlying connections, organizing multi-view data as heterogeneous graphs is beneficial to extracting latent information among different objects. Due to the powerful capability to gather information of neighborhood nodes, in this paper, we apply Graph Convolutional Network (GCN) to cope with heterogeneous-graph data originating from multi-view data, which is still under-explored in the field of GCN. In order to improve the quality of network topology and alleviate the interference of noises yielded by graph fusion, some methods undertake sorting operations before the graph convolution procedure. These GCN-based methods generally sort and select the most confident neighborhood nodes for each vertex, such as picking the top-k nodes according to pre-defined confidence values. Nonetheless, this is problematic due to the non-differentiable sorting operators and inflexible graph embedding learning, which may result in blocked gradient computations and undesired performance. To cope with these issues, we propose a joint framework dubbed Multi-view Graph Convolutional Network with Differentiable Node Selection (MGCN-DNS), which is constituted of an adaptive graph fusion layer, a graph learning module and a differentiable node selection schema. MGCN-DNS accepts multi-channel graph-structural data as inputs and aims to learn more robust graph fusion through a differentiable neural network. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by rigorous comparisons with considerable state-of-the-art approaches in terms of multi-view semi-supervised classification tasks.

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Zhaoliang Chen, Lele Fu, Jie Yao, Wenzhong Guo, Claudia Plant, Shiping Wang

In practical applications, multi-view data depicting objectives from assorted perspectives can facilitate the accuracy increase of learning algorithms. However, given multi-view data, there is limited work for learning discriminative node relationships and graph information simultaneously via graph convolutional network that has drawn the attention from considerable researchers in recent years. Most of existing methods only consider the weighted sum of adjacency matrices, yet a joint neural network of both feature and graph fusion is still under-explored. To cope with these issues, this paper proposes a joint deep learning framework called Learnable Graph Convolutional Network and Feature Fusion (LGCN-FF), consisting of two stages: feature fusion network and learnable graph convolutional network. The former aims to learn an underlying feature representation from heterogeneous views, while the latter explores a more discriminative graph fusion via learnable weights and a parametric activation function dubbed Differentiable Shrinkage Activation (DSA) function. The proposed LGCN-FF is validated to be superior to various state-of-the-art methods in multi-view semi-supervised classification.

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