The proliferation of fake news and its serious negative social influence push fake news detection methods to become necessary tools for web managers. Meanwhile, the multi-media nature of social media makes multi-modal fake news detection popular for its ability to capture more modal features than uni-modal detection methods. However, current literature on multi-modal detection is more likely to pursue the detection accuracy but ignore the robustness of the detector. To address this problem, we propose a comprehensive robustness evaluation of multi-modal fake news detectors. In this work, we simulate the attack methods of malicious users and developers, i.e., posting fake news and injecting backdoors. Specifically, we evaluate multi-modal detectors with five adversarial and two backdoor attack methods. Experiment results imply that: (1) The detection performance of the state-of-the-art detectors degrades significantly under adversarial attacks, even worse than general detectors; (2) Most multi-modal detectors are more vulnerable when subjected to attacks on visual modality than textual modality; (3) Popular events' images will cause significant degradation to the detectors when they are subjected to backdoor attacks; (4) The performance of these detectors under multi-modal attacks is worse than under uni-modal attacks; (5) Defensive methods will improve the robustness of the multi-modal detectors.
In this paper, the concept of subgraph network (SGN) is introduced and then applied to network models, with algorithms designed for constructing the 1st-order and 2nd-order SGNs, which can be easily extended to build higher-order ones. Furthermore, these SGNs are used to expand the structural feature space of the underlying network, beneficial for network classification. Numerical experiments demonstrate that the network classification model based on the structural features of the original network together with the 1st-order and 2nd-order SGNs always performs the best as compared to the models based only on one or two of such networks. In other words, the structural features of SGNs can complement that of the original network for better network classification, regardless of the feature extraction method used, such as the handcrafted, network embedding and kernel-based methods. More interestingly, it is found that the model based on the handcrafted feature performs even better than those based on automatically generated features, at least for most datasets tested in the present investigation. This indicates that, in general, properly chosen structural features are not only more interpretable due to their clear physical meanings, but also effective in designing structure-based algorithms for network classification.