Existing learning-based solutions to medical image segmentation have two important shortcomings. First, for most new segmentation task, a new model has to be trained or fine-tuned. This requires extensive resources and machine learning expertise, and is therefore often infeasible for medical researchers and clinicians. Second, most existing segmentation methods produce a single deterministic segmentation mask for a given image. In practice however, there is often considerable uncertainty about what constitutes the correct segmentation, and different expert annotators will often segment the same image differently. We tackle both of these problems with Tyche, a model that uses a context set to generate stochastic predictions for previously unseen tasks without the need to retrain. Tyche differs from other in-context segmentation methods in two important ways. (1) We introduce a novel convolution block architecture that enables interactions among predictions. (2) We introduce in-context test-time augmentation, a new mechanism to provide prediction stochasticity. When combined with appropriate model design and loss functions, Tyche can predict a set of plausible diverse segmentation candidates for new or unseen medical images and segmentation tasks without the need to retrain.
The field of automatic biomedical image analysis crucially depends on robust and meaningful performance metrics for algorithm validation. Current metric usage, however, is often ill-informed and does not reflect the underlying domain interest. Here, we present a comprehensive framework that guides researchers towards choosing performance metrics in a problem-aware manner. Specifically, we focus on biomedical image analysis problems that can be interpreted as a classification task at image, object or pixel level. The framework first compiles domain interest-, target structure-, data set- and algorithm output-related properties of a given problem into a problem fingerprint, while also mapping it to the appropriate problem category, namely image-level classification, semantic segmentation, instance segmentation, or object detection. It then guides users through the process of selecting and applying a set of appropriate validation metrics while making them aware of potential pitfalls related to individual choices. In this paper, we describe the current status of the Metrics Reloaded recommendation framework, with the goal of obtaining constructive feedback from the image analysis community. The current version has been developed within an international consortium of more than 60 image analysis experts and will be made openly available as a user-friendly toolkit after community-driven optimization.
* Shared first authors: Lena Maier-Hein, Annika Reinke. arXiv admin
note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:2104.05642