In this work we test the ability of deep learning methods to provide an end-to-end mapping between low and high resolution images applying it to the iris recognition problem. Here, we propose the use of two deep learning single-image super-resolution approaches: Stacked Auto-Encoders (SAE) and Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) with the most possible lightweight structure to achieve fast speed, preserve local information and reduce artifacts at the same time. We validate the methods with a database of 1.872 near-infrared iris images with quality assessment and recognition experiments showing the superiority of deep learning approaches over the compared algorithms.
* Published at Proc. 25th European Signal Processing Conference,
In the context of temporal image forensics, it is not evident that a neural network, trained on images from different time-slots (classes), exploit solely age related features. Usually, images taken in close temporal proximity (e.g., belonging to the same age class) share some common content properties. Such content bias can be exploited by a neural network. In this work, a novel approach that evaluates the influence of image content is proposed. This approach is verified using synthetic images (where content bias can be ruled out) with an age signal embedded. Based on the proposed approach, it is shown that a `standard' neural network trained in the context of age classification is strongly dependent on image content. As a potential countermeasure, two different techniques are applied to mitigate the influence of the image content during training, and they are also evaluated by the proposed method.
* This is a preprint, the paper is currently under consideration at
Pattern Recognition Letters
Today, deep learning represents the most popular and successful form of machine learning. Deep learning has revolutionised the field of pattern recognition, including biometric recognition. Biometric systems utilising deep learning have been shown to achieve auspicious recognition accuracy, surpassing human performance. Apart from said breakthrough advances in terms of biometric performance, the use of deep learning was reported to impact different covariates of biometrics such as algorithmic fairness, vulnerability to attacks, or template protection. Technologies of biometric template protection are designed to enable a secure and privacy-preserving deployment of biometrics. In the recent past, deep learning techniques have been frequently applied in biometric template protection systems for various purposes. This work provides an overview of how advances in deep learning take influence on the field of biometric template protection. The interrelation between improved biometric performance rates and security in biometric template protection is elaborated. Further, the use of deep learning for obtaining feature representations that are suitable for biometric template protection is discussed. Novel methods that apply deep learning to achieve various goals of biometric template protection are surveyed along with deep learning-based attacks.
Natural Scene Statistics commonly used in non-reference image quality measures and a deep learning based quality assessment approach are proposed as biometric quality indicators for vasculature images. While NIQE and BRISQUE if trained on common images with usual distortions do not work well for assessing vasculature pattern samples' quality, their variants being trained on high and low quality vasculature sample data behave as expected from a biometric quality estimator in most cases (deviations from the overall trend occur for certain datasets or feature extraction methods). The proposed deep learning based quality metric is capable of assigning the correct quality class to the vaculature pattern samples in most cases, independent of finger or hand vein patterns being assessed. The experiments were conducted on a total of 13 publicly available finger and hand vein datasets and involve three distinct template representations (two of them especially designed for vascular biometrics). The proposed (trained) quality measures are compared to a several classical quality metrics, with their achieved results underlining their promising behaviour.
In this study the authors will look at the detection and segmentation of the iris and its influence on the overall performance of the iris-biometric tool chain. The authors will examine whether the segmentation accuracy, based on conformance with a ground truth, can serve as a predictor for the overall performance of the iris-biometric tool chain. That is: If the segmentation accuracy is improved will this always improve the overall performance? Furthermore, the authors will systematically evaluate the influence of segmentation parameters, pupillary and limbic boundary and normalisation centre (based on Daugman's rubbersheet model), on the rest of the iris-biometric tool chain. The authors will investigate if accurately finding these parameters is important and how consistency, that is, extracting the same exact region of the iris during segmenting, influences the overall performance.
The use of low-resolution images adopting more relaxed acquisition conditions such as mobile phones and surveillance videos is becoming increasingly common in iris recognition nowadays. Concurrently, a great variety of single image super-resolution techniques are emerging, especially with the use of convolutional neural networks (CNNs). The main objective of these methods is to try to recover finer texture details generating more photo-realistic images based on the optimisation of an objective function depending basically on the CNN architecture and training approach. In this work, the authors explore single image super-resolution using CNNs for iris recognition. For this, they test different CNN architectures and use different training databases, validating their approach on a database of 1.872 near infrared iris images and on a mobile phone image database. They also use quality assessment, visual results and recognition experiments to verify if the photo-realism provided by the CNNs which have already proven to be effective for natural images can reflect in a better recognition rate for iris recognition. The results show that using deeper architectures trained with texture databases that provide a balance between edge preservation and the smoothness of the method can lead to good results in the iris recognition process.
The last decade has brought forward many great contributions regarding presentation attack detection for the domain of finger and hand vein biometrics. Among those contributions, one is able to find a variety of different attack databases that are either private or made publicly available to the research community. However, it is not always shown whether the used attack samples hold the capability to actually deceive a realistic vein recognition system. Inspired by previous works, this study provides a systematic threat evaluation including three publicly available finger vein attack databases and one private dorsal hand vein database. To do so, 14 distinct vein recognition schemes are confronted with attack samples and the percentage of wrongly accepted attack samples is then reported as the Impostor Attack Presentation Match Rate. As a second step, comparison scores from different recognition schemes are combined using score level fusion with the goal of performing presentation attack detection.
We study the finger vein (FV) sensor model identification task using a deep learning approach. So far, for this biometric modality, only correlation-based PRNU and texture descriptor-based methods have been applied. We employ five prominent CNN architectures covering a wide range of CNN family models, including VGG16, ResNet, and the Xception model. In addition, a novel architecture termed FV2021 is proposed in this work, which excels by its compactness and a low number of parameters to be trained. Original samples, as well as the region of interest data from eight publicly accessible FV datasets, are used in experimentation. An excellent sensor identification AUC-ROC score of 1.0 for patches of uncropped samples and 0.9997 for ROI samples have been achieved. The comparison with former methods shows that the CNN-based approach is superior and improved the results.
Identifying the origin of a sample image in biometric systems can be beneficial for data authentication in case of attacks against the system and for initiating sensor-specific processing pipelines in sensor-heterogeneous environments. Motivated by shortcomings of the photo response non-uniformity (PRNU) based method in the biometric context, we use a texture classification approach to detect the origin of finger vein sample images. Based on eight publicly available finger vein datasets and applying eight classical yet simple texture descriptors and SVM classification, we demonstrate excellent sensor model identification results for raw finger vein samples as well as for the more challenging region of interest data. The observed results establish texture descriptors as effective competitors to PRNU in finger vein sensor model identification.
The proof of origin of logs is becoming increasingly important. In the context of Industry 4.0 and to combat illegal logging there is an increasing motivation to track each individual log. Our previous works in this field focused on log tracking using digital log end images based on methods inspired by fingerprint and iris-recognition. This work presents a convolutional neural network (CNN) based approach which comprises a CNN-based segmentation of the log end combined with a final CNN-based recognition of the segmented log end using the triplet loss function for CNN training. Results show that the proposed two-stage CNN-based approach outperforms traditional approaches.