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Abstract:Effective resistance (ER) is an attractive way to interrogate the structure of graphs. It is an alternative to computing the eigen-vectors of the graph Laplacian. Graph laplacians are used to find low dimensional structures in high dimensional data. Here too, ER based analysis has advantages over eign-vector based methods. Unfortunately Von Luxburg et al. (2010) show that, when vertices correspond to a sample from a distribution over a metric space, the limit of the ER between distant points converges to a trivial quantity that holds no information about the structure of the graph. We show that by using scaling resistances in a graph with $n$ vertices by $n^2$, one gets a meaningful limit of the voltages and of effective resistances. We also show that by adding a "ground" node to a metric graph one gets a simple and natural way to compute all of the distances from a chosen point to all other points.

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Abstract:We examine the closedness of the set of realized neural networks of a fixed architecture in Sobolev space. For an exactly $m$-times differentiable activation function $\rho$, we construct a sequence of neural networks $(\Phi_n)_{n \in \mathbb{N}}$ whose realizations converge in order-$(m-1)$ Sobolev norm to a function that cannot be realized exactly by a neural network. Thus, the set of realized neural networks is not closed in the order-$(m-1)$ Sobolev space $W^{m-1,p}$. We further show that this set is not closed in $W^{m,p}$ under slightly stronger conditions on the $m$-th derivative of $\rho$. For a real analytic activation function, we show that the set of realized neural networks is not closed in $W^{k,p}$ for any $k \in \mathbb{N}$. These results suggest that training a network to approximate a target function in Sobolev norm does not prevent parameter explosion. Finally, we present experimental results demonstrating that parameter explosion occurs in stochastic training regardless of the norm under which the network is trained. However, the network is still capable of closely approximating a non-network target function with network parameters that grow at a manageable rate.

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Authors:Uri Shaham, James Garritano, Yutaro Yamada, Ethan Weinberger, Alex Cloninger, Xiuyuan Cheng, Kelly Stanton, Yuval Kluger

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Abstract:We study the effectiveness of various approaches that defend against adversarial attacks on deep networks via manipulations based on basis function representations of images. Specifically, we experiment with low-pass filtering, PCA, JPEG compression, low resolution wavelet approximation, and soft-thresholding. We evaluate these defense techniques using three types of popular attacks in black, gray and white-box settings. Our results show JPEG compression tends to outperform the other tested defenses in most of the settings considered, in addition to soft-thresholding, which performs well in specific cases, and yields a more mild decrease in accuracy on benign examples. In addition, we also mathematically derive a novel white-box attack in which the adversarial perturbation is composed only of terms corresponding a to pre-determined subset of the basis functions, of which a "low frequency attack" is a special case.

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