Federated learning allows clients to collaboratively train a global model without uploading raw data for privacy preservation. This feature, i.e., the inability to review participants' datasets, has recently been found responsible for federated learning's vulnerability in the face of backdoor attacks. Existing defense methods fall short from two perspectives: 1) they consider only very specific and limited attacker models and unable to cope with advanced backdoor attacks, such as distributed backdoor attacks, which break down the global trigger into multiple distributed triggers. 2) they conduct detection based on model granularity thus the performance gets impacted by the model dimension. To address these challenges, we propose Federated Layer Detection (FLD), a novel model filtering approach for effectively defending against backdoor attacks. FLD examines the models based on layer granularity to capture the complete model details and effectively detect potential backdoor models regardless of model dimension. We provide theoretical analysis and proof for the convergence of FLD. Extensive experiments demonstrate that FLD effectively mitigates state-of-the-art backdoor attacks with negligible impact on the accuracy of the primary task.