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Shuangping Li, Tselil Schramm

Gaussian mixture block models are distributions over graphs that strive to model modern networks: to generate a graph from such a model, we associate each vertex $i$ with a latent feature vector $u_i \in \mathbb{R}^d$ sampled from a mixture of Gaussians, and we add edge $(i,j)$ if and only if the feature vectors are sufficiently similar, in that $\langle u_i,u_j \rangle \ge \tau$ for a pre-specified threshold $\tau$. The different components of the Gaussian mixture represent the fact that there may be different types of nodes with different distributions over features -- for example, in a social network each component represents the different attributes of a distinct community. Natural algorithmic tasks associated with these networks are embedding (recovering the latent feature vectors) and clustering (grouping nodes by their mixture component). In this paper we initiate the study of clustering and embedding graphs sampled from high-dimensional Gaussian mixture block models, where the dimension of the latent feature vectors $d\to \infty$ as the size of the network $n \to \infty$. This high-dimensional setting is most appropriate in the context of modern networks, in which we think of the latent feature space as being high-dimensional. We analyze the performance of canonical spectral clustering and embedding algorithms for such graphs in the case of 2-component spherical Gaussian mixtures, and begin to sketch out the information-computation landscape for clustering and embedding in these models.

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Emmanuel Abbe, Shuangping Li, Allan Sly

It was recently shown that almost all solutions in the symmetric binary perceptron are isolated, even at low constraint densities, suggesting that finding typical solutions is hard. In contrast, some algorithms have been shown empirically to succeed in finding solutions at low density. This phenomenon has been justified numerically by the existence of subdominant and dense connected regions of solutions, which are accessible by simple learning algorithms. In this paper, we establish formally such a phenomenon for both the symmetric and asymmetric binary perceptrons. We show that at low constraint density (equivalently for overparametrized perceptrons), there exists indeed a subdominant connected cluster of solutions with almost maximal diameter, and that an efficient multiscale majority algorithm can find solutions in such a cluster with high probability, settling in particular an open problem posed by Perkins-Xu '21. In addition, even close to the critical threshold, we show that there exist clusters of linear diameter for the symmetric perceptron, as well as for the asymmetric perceptron under additional assumptions.

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Emmanuel Abbe, Shuangping Li, Allan Sly

We consider the symmetric binary perceptron model, a simple model of neural networks that has gathered significant attention in the statistical physics, information theory and probability theory communities, with recent connections made to the performance of learning algorithms in Baldassi et al. '15. We establish that the partition function of this model, normalized by its expected value, converges to a lognormal distribution. As a consequence, this allows us to establish several conjectures for this model: (i) it proves the contiguity conjecture of Aubin et al. '19 between the planted and unplanted models in the satisfiable regime; (ii) it establishes the sharp threshold conjecture; (iii) it proves the frozen 1-RSB conjecture in the symmetric case, conjectured first by Krauth-M\'ezard '89 in the asymmetric case. In a recent concurrent work of Perkins-Xu [PX21], the last two conjectures were also established by proving that the partition function concentrates on an exponential scale. This left open the contiguity conjecture and the lognormal limit characterization, which are established here. In particular, our proof technique relies on a dense counter-part of the small graph conditioning method, which was developed for sparse models in the celebrated work of Robinson and Wormald.

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Emmanuel Abbe, Shuangping Li, Allan Sly

The problem of learning graphons has attracted considerable attention across several scientific communities, with significant progress over the recent years in sparser regimes. Yet, the current techniques still require diverging degrees in order to succeed with efficient algorithms in the challenging cases where the local structure of the graph is homogeneous. This paper provides an efficient algorithm to learn graphons in the constant expected degree regime. The algorithm is shown to succeed in estimating the rank-$k$ projection of a graphon in the $L_2$ metric if the top $k$ eigenvalues of the graphon satisfy a generalized Kesten-Stigum condition.

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