Physics-informed neural networks (PINNs) have emerged as a powerful tool for solving inverse problems, especially in cases where no complete information about the system is known and scatter measurements are available. This is especially useful in hemodynamics since the boundary information is often difficult to model, and high-quality blood flow measurements are generally hard to obtain. In this work, we use the PINNs methodology for estimating reduced-order model parameters and the full velocity field from scatter 2D noisy measurements in the ascending aorta. The results show stable and accurate parameter estimations when using the method with simulated data, while the velocity reconstruction shows dependence on the measurement quality and the flow pattern complexity. The method allows for solving clinical-relevant inverse problems in hemodynamics and complex coupled physical systems.
Heart failure is typically diagnosed with a global function assessment, such as ejection fraction. However, these metrics have low discriminate power, failing to distinguish different types of this disease. Quantifying local deformations in the form of cardiac strain can provide helpful information, but it remains a challenge. In this work, we introduce WarpPINN, a physics-informed neural network to perform image registration to obtain local metrics of the heart deformation. We apply this method to cine magnetic resonance images to estimate the motion during the cardiac cycle. We inform our neural network of near-incompressibility of cardiac tissue by penalizing the jacobian of the deformation field. The loss function has two components: an intensity-based similarity term between the reference and the warped template images, and a regularizer that represents the hyperelastic behavior of the tissue. The architecture of the neural network allows us to easily compute the strain via automatic differentiation to assess cardiac activity. We use Fourier feature mappings to overcome the spectral bias of neural networks, allowing us to capture discontinuities in the strain field. We test our algorithm on a synthetic example and on a cine-MRI benchmark of 15 healthy volunteers. We outperform current methodologies both landmark tracking and strain estimation. We expect that WarpPINN will enable more precise diagnostics of heart failure based on local deformation information. Source code is available at https://github.com/fsahli/WarpPINN.
Several deep learning architectures have been proposed over the last years to deal with the problem of generating a written report given an imaging exam as input. Most works evaluate the generated reports using standard Natural Language Processing (NLP) metrics (e.g. BLEU, ROUGE), reporting significant progress. In this article, we contrast this progress by comparing state of the art (SOTA) models against weak baselines. We show that simple and even naive approaches yield near SOTA performance on most traditional NLP metrics. We conclude that evaluation methods in this task should be further studied towards correctly measuring clinical accuracy, ideally involving physicians to contribute to this end.
Every year physicians face an increasing demand of image-based diagnosis from patients, a problem that can be addressed with recent artificial intelligence methods. In this context, we survey works in the area of automatic report generation from medical images, with emphasis on methods using deep neural networks, with respect to: (1) Datasets, (2) Architecture Design, (3) Explainability and (4) Evaluation Metrics. Our survey identifies interesting developments, but also remaining challenges. Among them, the current evaluation of generated reports is especially weak, since it mostly relies on traditional Natural Language Processing (NLP) metrics, which do not accurately capture medical correctness.