Extracting semantic representations from mobile user interfaces (UI) and using the representations for designers' decision-making processes have shown the potential to be effective computational design support tools. Current approaches rely on machine learning models trained on small-sized mobile UI datasets to extract semantic vectors and use screenshot-to-screenshot comparison to retrieve similar-looking UIs given query screenshots. However, the usability of these methods is limited because they are often not open-sourced and have complex training pipelines for practitioners to follow, and are unable to perform screenshot set-to-set (i.e., app-to-app) retrieval. To this end, we (1) employ visual models trained with large web-scale images and test whether they could extract a UI representation in a zero-shot way and outperform existing specialized models, and (2) use mathematically founded methods to enable app-to-app retrieval and design consistency analysis. Our experiments show that our methods not only improve upon previous retrieval models but also enable multiple new applications.
We address the lack of reliability in benchmarking clustering techniques based on labeled datasets. A standard scheme in external clustering validation is to use class labels as ground truth clusters, based on the assumption that each class forms a single, clearly separated cluster. However, as such cluster-label matching (CLM) assumption often breaks, the lack of conducting a sanity check for the CLM of benchmark datasets casts doubt on the validity of external validations. Still, evaluating the degree of CLM is challenging. For example, internal clustering validation measures can be used to quantify CLM within the same dataset to evaluate its different clusterings but are not designed to compare clusterings of different datasets. In this work, we propose a principled way to generate between-dataset internal measures that enable the comparison of CLM across datasets. We first determine four axioms for between-dataset internal measures, complementing Ackerman and Ben-David's within-dataset axioms. We then propose processes to generalize internal measures to fulfill these new axioms, and use them to extend the widely used Calinski-Harabasz index for between-dataset CLM evaluation. Through quantitative experiments, we (1) verify the validity and necessity of the generalization processes and (2) show that the proposed between-dataset Calinski-Harabasz index accurately evaluates CLM across datasets. Finally, we demonstrate the importance of evaluating CLM of benchmark datasets before conducting external validation.