As mobile devices are becoming ubiquitous, regularly interacting with a variety of user interfaces (UIs) is a common aspect of daily life for many people. To improve the accessibility of these devices and to enable their usage in a variety of settings, building models that can assist users and accomplish tasks through the UI is vitally important. However, there are several challenges to achieve this. First, UI components of similar appearance can have different functionalities, making understanding their function more important than just analyzing their appearance. Second, domain-specific features like Document Object Model (DOM) in web pages and View Hierarchy (VH) in mobile applications provide important signals about the semantics of UI elements, but these features are not in a natural language format. Third, owing to a large diversity in UIs and absence of standard DOM or VH representations, building a UI understanding model with high coverage requires large amounts of training data. Inspired by the success of pre-training based approaches in NLP for tackling a variety of problems in a data-efficient way, we introduce a new pre-trained UI representation model called ActionBert. Our methodology is designed to leverage visual, linguistic and domain-specific features in user interaction traces to pre-train generic feature representations of UIs and their components. Our key intuition is that user actions, e.g., a sequence of clicks on different UI components, reveals important information about their functionality. We evaluate the proposed model on a wide variety of downstream tasks, ranging from icon classification to UI component retrieval based on its natural language description. Experiments show that the proposed ActionBert model outperforms multi-modal baselines across all downstream tasks by up to 15.5%.
Attacks against the control processor of a power-grid system, especially zero-day attacks, can be catastrophic. Earlier detection of the attacks can prevent further damage. However, detecting zero-day attacks can be challenging because they have no known code and have unknown behavior. In order to address the zero-day attack problem, we propose a data-driven defense by training a temporal deep learning model, using only normal data from legitimate processes that run daily in these power-grid systems, to model the normal behavior of the power-grid controller. Then, we can quickly find malicious codes running on the processor, by estimating deviations from the normal behavior with a statistical test. Experimental results on a real power-grid controller show that we can detect anomalous behavior with over 99.9% accuracy and nearly zero false positives.
Internet of things (IoT) applications have become increasingly popular in recent years, with applications ranging from building energy monitoring to personal health tracking and activity recognition. In order to leverage these data, automatic knowledge extraction - whereby we map from observations to interpretable states and transitions - must be done at scale. As such, we have seen many recent IoT data sets include annotations with a human expert specifying states, recorded as a set of boundaries and associated labels in a data sequence. These data can be used to build automatic labeling algorithms that produce labels as an expert would. Here, we refer to human-specified boundaries as breakpoints. Traditional changepoint detection methods only look for statistically-detectable boundaries that are defined as abrupt variations in the generative parameters of a data sequence. However, we observe that breakpoints occur on more subtle boundaries that are non-trivial to detect with these statistical methods. In this work, we propose a new unsupervised approach, based on deep learning, that outperforms existing techniques and learns the more subtle, breakpoint boundaries with a high accuracy. Through extensive experiments on various real-world data sets - including human-activity sensing data, speech signals, and electroencephalogram (EEG) activity traces - we demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm for practical applications. Furthermore, we show that our approach achieves significantly better performance than previous methods.