Mobile Edge Caching (MEC) is a revolutionary technology for the Sixth Generation (6G) of wireless networks with the promise to significantly reduce users' latency via offering storage capacities at the edge of the network. The efficiency of the MEC network, however, critically depends on its ability to dynamically predict/update the storage of caching nodes with the top-K popular contents. Conventional statistical caching schemes are not robust to the time-variant nature of the underlying pattern of content requests, resulting in a surge of interest in using Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) for time-series popularity prediction in MEC networks. However, existing DNN models within the context of MEC fail to simultaneously capture both temporal correlations of historical request patterns and the dependencies between multiple contents. This necessitates an urgent quest to develop and design a new and innovative popularity prediction architecture to tackle this critical challenge. The paper addresses this gap by proposing a novel hybrid caching framework based on the attention mechanism. Referred to as the parallel Vision Transformers with Cross Attention (ViT-CAT) Fusion, the proposed architecture consists of two parallel ViT networks, one for collecting temporal correlation, and the other for capturing dependencies between different contents. Followed by a Cross Attention (CA) module as the Fusion Center (FC), the proposed ViT-CAT is capable of learning the mutual information between temporal and spatial correlations, as well, resulting in improving the classification accuracy, and decreasing the model's complexity about 8 times. Based on the simulation results, the proposed ViT-CAT architecture outperforms its counterparts across the classification accuracy, complexity, and cache-hit ratio.
Coded/uncoded content placement in Mobile Edge Caching (MEC) has evolved as an efficient solution to meet the significant growth of global mobile data traffic by boosting the content diversity in the storage of caching nodes. To meet the dynamic nature of the historical request pattern of multimedia contents, the main focus of recent researches has been shifted to develop data-driven and real-time caching schemes. In this regard and with the assumption that users' preferences remain unchanged over a short horizon, the Top-K popular contents are identified as the output of the learning model. Most existing datadriven popularity prediction models, however, are not suitable for the coded/uncoded content placement frameworks. On the one hand, in coded/uncoded content placement, in addition to classifying contents into two groups, i.e., popular and nonpopular, the probability of content request is required to identify which content should be stored partially/completely, where this information is not provided by existing data-driven popularity prediction models. On the other hand, the assumption that users' preferences remain unchanged over a short horizon only works for content with a smooth request pattern. To tackle these challenges, we develop a Multiple-model (hybrid) Transformer-based Edge Caching (MTEC) framework with higher generalization ability, suitable for various types of content with different time-varying behavior, that can be adapted with coded/uncoded content placement frameworks. Simulation results corroborate the effectiveness of the proposed MTEC caching framework in comparison to its counterparts in terms of the cache-hit ratio, classification accuracy, and the transferred byte volume.
Ultra-Wideband (UWB) is one of the key technologies empowering the Internet of Thing (IoT) concept to perform reliable, energy-efficient, and highly accurate monitoring, screening, and localization in indoor environments. Performance of UWB-based localization systems, however, can significantly degrade because of Non Line of Sight (NLoS) connections between a mobile user and UWB beacons. To mitigate the destructive effects of NLoS connections, we target development of a Reinforcement Learning (RL) anchor selection framework that can efficiently cope with the dynamic nature of indoor environments. Existing RL models in this context, however, lack the ability to generalize well to be used in a new setting. Moreover, it takes a long time for the conventional RL models to reach the optimal policy. To tackle these challenges, we propose the Jump-start RL-based Uwb NOde selection (JUNO) framework, which performs real-time location predictions without relying on complex NLoS identification/mitigation methods. The effectiveness of the proposed JUNO framework is evaluated in term of the location error, where the mobile user moves randomly through an ultra-dense indoor environment with a high chance of establishing NLoS connections. Simulation results corroborate the effectiveness of the proposed framework in comparison to its state-of-the-art counterparts.
Recent studies in neuroscience suggest that Successor Representation (SR)-based models provide adaptation to changes in the goal locations or reward function faster than model-free algorithms, together with lower computational cost compared to that of model-based algorithms. However, it is not known how such representation might help animals to manage uncertainty in their decision-making. Existing methods for SR learning do not capture uncertainty about the estimated SR. In order to address this issue, the paper presents a Kalman filter-based SR framework, referred to as Adaptive Kalman Filtering-based Successor Representation (AKF-SR). First, Kalman temporal difference approach, which is a combination of the Kalman filter and the temporal difference method, is used within the AKF-SR framework to cast the SR learning procedure into a filtering problem to benefit from the uncertainty estimation of the SR, and also decreases in memory requirement and sensitivity to model's parameters in comparison to deep neural network-based algorithms. An adaptive Kalman filtering approach is then applied within the proposed AKF-SR framework in order to tune the measurement noise covariance and measurement mapping function of Kalman filter as the most important parameters affecting the filter's performance. Moreover, an active learning method that exploits the estimated uncertainty of the SR to form the behaviour policy leading to more visits to less certain values is proposed to improve the overall performance of an agent in terms of received rewards while interacting with its environment.
Recent advancements in Internet of Things (IoTs) have brought about a surge of interest in indoor positioning for the purpose of providing reliable, accurate, and energy-efficient indoor navigation/localization systems. Ultra Wide Band (UWB) technology has been emerged as a potential candidate to satisfy the aforementioned requirements. Although UWB technology can enhance the accuracy of indoor positioning due to the use of a wide-frequency spectrum, there are key challenges ahead for its efficient implementation. On the one hand, achieving high precision in positioning relies on the identification/mitigation Non Line of Sight (NLoS) links, leading to a significant increase in the complexity of the localization framework. On the other hand, UWB beacons have a limited battery life, which is especially problematic in practical circumstances with certain beacons located in strategic positions. To address these challenges, we introduce an efficient node selection framework to enhance the location accuracy without using complex NLoS mitigation methods, while maintaining a balance between the remaining battery life of UWB beacons. Referred to as the Deep Q-Learning Energy-optimized LoS/NLoS (DQLEL) UWB node selection framework, the mobile user is autonomously trained to determine the optimal pair of UWB beacons to be localized based on the 2-D Time Difference of Arrival (TDoA) framework. The effectiveness of the proposed DQLEL framework is evaluated in terms of the link condition, the deviation of the remaining battery life of UWB beacons, location error, and cumulative rewards. Based on the simulation results, the proposed DQLEL framework significantly outperformed its counterparts across the aforementioned aspects.
Symbiotic Autonomous Systems (SAS) are advanced intelligent and cognitive systems exhibiting autonomous collective intelligence enabled by coherent symbiosis of human-machine interactions in hybrid societies. Basic research in the emerging field of SAS has triggered advanced general AI technologies functioning without human intervention or hybrid symbiotic systems synergizing humans and intelligent machines into coherent cognitive systems. This work presents a theoretical framework of SAS underpinned by the latest advances in intelligence, cognition, computer, and system sciences. SAS are characterized by the composition of autonomous and symbiotic systems that adopt bio-brain-social-inspired and heterogeneously synergized structures and autonomous behaviors. This paper explores their cognitive and mathematical foundations. The challenge to seamless human-machine interactions in a hybrid environment is addressed. SAS-based collective intelligence is explored in order to augment human capability by autonomous machine intelligence towards the next generation of general AI, autonomous computers, and trustworthy mission-critical intelligent systems. Emerging paradigms and engineering applications of SAS are elaborated via an autonomous knowledge learning system that symbiotically works between humans and cognitive robots.
Recently, as a consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic, dependence on telecommunication for remote learning/working and telemedicine has significantly increased. In this context, preserving high Quality of Service (QoS) and maintaining low latency communication are of paramount importance. Development of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)-aided heterogeneous cellular network is a promising solution to satisfy the aforementioned requirements. There are, however, key challenges ahead, on the one hand, it is challenging to optimally increase content diversity in caching nodes to mitigate the network's traffic over the backhaul. On the other hand is the challenge of attenuated UAVs' signal in indoor environments, which increases users' access delay and UAVs' energy consumption. To address these challenges, we incorporate UAVs, as mobile caching nodes, together with Femto Access points (FAPs) to increase the network's coverage in both indoor and outdoor environments. Referred to as the Cluster-centric and Coded UAV-aided Femtocaching (CCUF) framework, a two-phase clustering framework is proposed for optimal FAPs' formation and UAVs' deployment. The proposed CCUF leads to an increase in the cache diversity, a reduction in the users' access delay, and significant reduction in UAVs' energy consumption. To mitigate the inter-cell interference in edge areas, the Coordinated Multi-Point (CoMP) approach is integrated within the CCUF framework. In contrary to existing works, we analytically compute the optimal number of FAPs in each cluster to increase the cache-hit probability of coded content placement. Furthermore, the optimal number of coded contents to be stored in each caching node is computed to increase the cache-hit-ratio, Signal-to-Interference-plus-Noise Ratio (SINR), and cache diversity and decrease the users' access delay and cache redundancy for different content popularity profiles.
Recognizing, assessing, countering, and mitigating the biases of different nature from heterogeneous sources is a critical problem in designing a cognitive Decision Support System (DSS). An example of such a system is a cognitive biometric-enabled security checkpoint. Biased algorithms affect the decision-making process in an unpredictable way, e.g. face recognition for different demographic groups may severely impact the risk assessment at a checkpoint. This paper addresses a challenging research question on how to manage an ensemble of biases? We provide performance projections of the DSS operational landscape in terms of biases. A probabilistic reasoning technique is used for assessment of the risk of such biases. We also provide a motivational experiment using face biometric component of the checkpoint system which highlights the discovery of an ensemble of biases and the techniques to assess their risks.
Although the convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have become popular for various image processing and computer vision task recently, it remains a challenging problem to reduce the storage cost of the parameters for resource-limited platforms. In the previous studies, tensor decomposition (TD) has achieved promising compression performance by embedding the kernel of a convolutional layer into a low-rank subspace. However the employment of TD is naively on the kernel or its specified variants. Unlike the conventional approaches, this paper shows that the kernel can be embedded into more general or even random low-rank subspaces. We demonstrate this by compressing the convolutional layers via randomly-shuffled tensor decomposition (RsTD) for a standard classification task using CIFAR-10. In addition, we analyze how the spatial similarity of the training data influences the low-rank structure of the kernels. The experimental results show that the CNN can be significantly compressed even if the kernels are randomly shuffled. Furthermore, the RsTD-based method yields more stable classification accuracy than the conventional TD-based methods in a large range of compression ratios.
A key problem in blind image quality assessment (BIQA) is how to effectively model the properties of human visual system in a data-driven manner. In this paper, we propose a simple and efficient BIQA model based on a novel framework which consists of a fully convolutional neural network (FCNN) and a pooling network to solve this problem. In principle, FCNN is capable of predicting a pixel-by-pixel similar quality map only from a distorted image by using the intermediate similarity maps derived from conventional full-reference image quality assessment methods. The predicted pixel-by-pixel quality maps have good consistency with the distortion correlations between the reference and distorted images. Finally, a deep pooling network regresses the quality map into a score. Experiments have demonstrated that our predictions outperform many state-of-the-art BIQA methods.