Nowadays, Transformer language models (LMs) represent a fundamental component of the NLP research methodologies and applications. However, the development of such models specifically for the Russian language has received little attention. This paper presents a collection of 13 Russian Transformer LMs based on the encoder (ruBERT, ruRoBERTa, ruELECTRA), decoder (ruGPT-3), and encoder-decoder (ruT5, FRED-T5) models in multiple sizes. Access to these models is readily available via the HuggingFace platform. We provide a report of the model architecture design and pretraining, and the results of evaluating their generalization abilities on Russian natural language understanding and generation datasets and benchmarks. By pretraining and releasing these specialized Transformer LMs, we hope to broaden the scope of the NLP research directions and enable the development of industrial solutions for the Russian language.
Modern large language models demonstrate impressive capabilities in text generation and generalization. However, they often struggle with solving text editing tasks, particularly when it comes to correcting spelling errors and mistypings. In this paper, we present a methodology for generative spelling correction (SC), which was tested on English and Russian languages and potentially can be extended to any language with minor changes. Our research mainly focuses on exploring natural spelling errors and mistypings in texts and studying the ways those errors can be emulated in correct sentences to effectively enrich generative models' pre-train procedure. We investigate the impact of such emulations and the models' abilities across different text domains. In this work, we investigate two spelling corruption techniques: 1) first one mimics human behavior when making a mistake through leveraging statistics of errors from particular dataset and 2) second adds the most common spelling errors, keyboard miss clicks, and some heuristics within the texts. We conducted experiments employing various corruption strategies, models' architectures and sizes on the pre-training and fine-tuning stages and evaluated the models using single-domain and multi-domain test sets. As a practical outcome of our work, we introduce SAGE (Spell checking via Augmentation and Generative distribution Emulation) is a library for automatic generative SC that includes a family of pre-trained generative models and built-in augmentation algorithms.