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Current space-based missions, such as the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS), provide a large database of light curves that must be analysed efficiently and systematically. In recent years, deep learning (DL) methods, particularly convolutional neural networks (CNN), have been used to classify transit signals of candidate exoplanets automatically. However, CNNs have some drawbacks; for example, they require many layers to capture dependencies on sequential data, such as light curves, making the network so large that it eventually becomes impractical. The self-attention mechanism is a DL technique that attempts to mimic the action of selectively focusing on some relevant things while ignoring others. Models, such as the Transformer architecture, were recently proposed for sequential data with successful results. Based on these successful models, we present a new architecture for the automatic classification of transit signals. Our proposed architecture is designed to capture the most significant features of a transit signal and stellar parameters through the self-attention mechanism. In addition to model prediction, we take advantage of attention map inspection, obtaining a more interpretable DL approach. Thus, we can identify the relevance of each element to differentiate a transit signal from false positives, simplifying the manual examination of candidates. We show that our architecture achieves competitive results concerning the CNNs applied for recognizing exoplanetary transit signals in data from the TESS telescope. Based on these results, we demonstrate that applying this state-of-the-art DL model to light curves can be a powerful technique for transit signal detection while offering a level of interpretability.

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In recent decades, machine learning has provided valuable models and algorithms for processing and extracting knowledge from time-series surveys. Different classifiers have been proposed and performed to an excellent standard. Nevertheless, few papers have tackled the data shift problem in labeled training sets, which occurs when there is a mismatch between the data distribution in the training set and the testing set. This drawback can damage the prediction performance in unseen data. Consequently, we propose a scalable and easily adaptable approach based on an informative regularization and an ad-hoc training procedure to mitigate the shift problem during the training of a multi-layer perceptron for RR Lyrae classification. We collect ranges for characteristic features to construct a symbolic representation of prior knowledge, which was used to model the informative regularizer component. Simultaneously, we design a two-step back-propagation algorithm to integrate this knowledge into the neural network, whereby one step is applied in each epoch to minimize classification error, while another is applied to ensure regularization. Our algorithm defines a subset of parameters (a mask) for each loss function. This approach handles the forgetting effect, which stems from a trade-off between these loss functions (learning from data versus learning expert knowledge) during training. Experiments were conducted using recently proposed shifted benchmark sets for RR Lyrae stars, outperforming baseline models by up to 3\% through a more reliable classifier. Our method provides a new path to incorporate knowledge from characteristic features into artificial neural networks to manage the underlying data shift problem.

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Physics-Informed Neural Networks (PINNs) are gaining popularity as a method for solving differential equations. While being more feasible in some contexts than the classical numerical techniques, PINNs still lack credibility. A remedy for that can be found in Uncertainty Quantification (UQ) which is just beginning to emerge in the context of PINNs. Assessing how well the trained PINN complies with imposed differential equation is the key to tackling uncertainty, yet there is lack of comprehensive methodology for this task. We propose a framework for UQ in Bayesian PINNs (B-PINNs) that incorporates the discrepancy between the B-PINN solution and the unknown true solution. We exploit recent results on error bounds for PINNs on linear dynamical systems and demonstrate the predictive uncertainty on a class of linear ODEs.

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Uncertainty quantification (UQ) helps to make trustworthy predictions based on collected observations and uncertain domain knowledge. With increased usage of deep learning in various applications, the need for efficient UQ methods that can make deep models more reliable has increased as well. Among applications that can benefit from effective handling of uncertainty are the deep learning based differential equation (DE) solvers. We adapt several state-of-the-art UQ methods to get the predictive uncertainty for DE solutions and show the results on four different DE types.

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The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) has been measured over a wide range of multipoles. Experiments with arc-minute resolution like the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) have contributed to the measurement of primary and secondary anisotropies, leading to remarkable scientific discoveries. Such findings require careful data selection in order to remove poorly-behaved detectors and unwanted contaminants. The current data classification methodology used by ACT relies on several statistical parameters that are assessed and fine-tuned by an expert. This method is highly time-consuming and band or season-specific, which makes it less scalable and efficient for future CMB experiments. In this work, we propose a supervised machine learning model to classify detectors of CMB experiments. The model corresponds to a deep convolutional neural network. We tested our method on real ACT data, using the 2008 season, 148 GHz, as training set with labels provided by the ACT data selection software. The model learns to classify time-streams starting directly from the raw data. For the season and frequency considered during the training, we find that our classifier reaches a precision of 99.8%. For 220 and 280 GHz data, season 2008, we obtained 99.4% and 97.5% of precision, respectively. Finally, we performed a cross-season test over 148 GHz data from 2009 and 2010 for which our model reaches a precision of 99.8% and 99.5%, respectively. Our model is about 10x faster than the current pipeline, making it potentially suitable for real-time implementations.

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During the last decade, considerable effort has been made to perform automatic classification of variable stars using machine learning techniques. Traditionally, light curves are represented as a vector of descriptors or features used as input for many algorithms. Some features are computationally expensive, cannot be updated quickly and hence for large datasets such as the LSST cannot be applied. Previous work has been done to develop alternative unsupervised feature extraction algorithms for light curves, but the cost of doing so still remains high. In this work, we propose an end-to-end algorithm that automatically learns the representation of light curves that allows an accurate automatic classification. We study a series of deep learning architectures based on Recurrent Neural Networks and test them in automated classification scenarios. Our method uses minimal data preprocessing, can be updated with a low computational cost for new observations and light curves, and can scale up to massive datasets. We transform each light curve into an input matrix representation whose elements are the differences in time and magnitude, and the outputs are classification probabilities. We test our method in three surveys: OGLE-III, Gaia and WISE. We obtain accuracies of about $95\%$ in the main classes and $75\%$ in the majority of subclasses. We compare our results with the Random Forest classifier and obtain competitive accuracies while being faster and scalable. The analysis shows that the computational complexity of our approach grows up linearly with the light curve size, while the traditional approach cost grows as $N\log{(N)}$.

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In the last years, automatic classification of variable stars has received substantial attention. Using machine learning techniques for this task has proven to be quite useful. Typically, machine learning classifiers used for this task require to have a fixed training set, and the training process is performed offline. Upcoming surveys such as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will generate new observations daily, where an automatic classification system able to create alerts online will be mandatory. A system with those characteristics must be able to update itself incrementally. Unfortunately, after training, most machine learning classifiers do not support the inclusion of new observations in light curves, they need to re-train from scratch. Naively re-training from scratch is not an option in streaming settings, mainly because of the expensive pre-processing routines required to obtain a vector representation of light curves (features) each time we include new observations. In this work, we propose a streaming probabilistic classification model; it uses a set of newly designed features that work incrementally. With this model, we can have a machine learning classifier that updates itself in real time with new observations. To test our approach, we simulate a streaming scenario with light curves from CoRot, OGLE and MACHO catalogs. Results show that our model achieves high classification performance, staying an order of magnitude faster than traditional classification approaches.

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Classification and characterization of variable phenomena and transient phenomena are critical for astrophysics and cosmology. These objects are commonly studied using photometric time series or spectroscopic data. Given that many ongoing and future surveys are in time-domain and given that adding spectra provide further insights but requires more observational resources, it would be valuable to know which objects should we prioritize to have spectrum in addition to time series. We propose a methodology in a probabilistic setting that determines a-priory which objects are worth taking spectrum to obtain better insights, where we focus 'insight' as the type of the object (classification). Objects for which we query its spectrum are reclassified using their full spectrum information. We first train two classifiers, one that uses photometric data and another that uses photometric and spectroscopic data together. Then for each photometric object we estimate the probability of each possible spectrum outcome. We combine these models in various probabilistic frameworks (strategies) which are used to guide the selection of follow up observations. The best strategy depends on the intended use, whether it is getting more confidence or accuracy. For a given number of candidate objects (127, equal to 5% of the dataset) for taking spectra, we improve 37% class prediction accuracy as opposed to 20% of a non-naive (non-random) best base-line strategy. Our approach provides a general framework for follow-up strategies and can be extended beyond classification and to include other forms of follow-ups beyond spectroscopy.

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Within the last years, the classification of variable stars with Machine Learning has become a mainstream area of research. Recently, visualization of time series is attracting more attention in data science as a tool to visually help scientists to recognize significant patterns in complex dynamics. Within the Machine Learning literature, dictionary-based methods have been widely used to encode relevant parts of image data. These methods intrinsically assign a degree of importance to patches in pictures, according to their contribution in the image reconstruction. Inspired by dictionary-based techniques, we present an approach that naturally provides the visualization of salient parts in astronomical light curves, making the analogy between image patches and relevant pieces in time series. Our approach encodes the most meaningful patterns such that we can approximately reconstruct light curves by just using the encoded information. We test our method in light curves from the OGLE-III and StarLight databases. Our results show that the proposed model delivers an automatic and intuitive visualization of relevant light curve parts, such as local peaks and drops in magnitude.

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Crowdsourcing has become widely used in supervised scenarios where training sets are scarce and hard to obtain. Most crowdsourcing models in literature assume labelers can provide answers for full questions. In classification contexts, full questions mean that a labeler is asked to discern among all the possible classes. Unfortunately, that discernment is not always easy in realistic scenarios. Labelers may not be experts in differentiating all the classes. In this work, we provide a full probabilistic model for a shorter type of queries. Our shorter queries just required a 'yes' or 'no' response. Our model estimates a joint posterior distribution of matrices related to the labelers confusions and the posterior probability of the class of every object. We develop an approximate inference approach using Monte Carlo Sampling and Black Box Variational Inference, where we provide the derivation of the necessary gradients. We build two realistic crowdsourcing scenarios to test our model. The first scenario queries for irregular astronomical time-series. The second scenario relies on animal's image classification. Results show that we can achieve comparable results with full query crowdsourcing. Furthermore, we show that modeling the labelers failures plays an important role in estimating the true classes. Finally, we provide the community with two real datasets obtained from our crowdsourcing experiments. All our code is publicly available (Available at: revealed as soon as the paper gets published.)

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