Physical human-robot interactions (pHRIs) can improve robot autonomy and reduce physical demands on humans. In this paper, we consider a collaborative task with a considerably long object and no prior knowledge of the object's parameters. An integrated control framework with an online object parameter estimator and a Cartesian object-aware impedance controller is proposed to realize complicated scenarios. During the transportation task, the object parameters are estimated online while a robot and human lift an object. The perturbation motion is incorporated into the null space of the desired trajectory to enhance the estimator accuracy. An object-aware impedance controller is designed using the real-time estimation results to effectively transmit the intended human motion to the robot through the object. Experimental demonstrations of collaborative tasks, including object transportation and assembly tasks, are implemented to show the effectiveness of our proposed method.
Training deep learning models with differential privacy (DP) results in a degradation of performance. The training dynamics of models with DP show a significant difference from standard training, whereas understanding the geometric properties of private learning remains largely unexplored. In this paper, we investigate sharpness, a key factor in achieving better generalization, in private learning. We show that flat minima can help reduce the negative effects of per-example gradient clipping and the addition of Gaussian noise. We then verify the effectiveness of Sharpness-Aware Minimization (SAM) for seeking flat minima in private learning. However, we also discover that SAM is detrimental to the privacy budget and computational time due to its two-step optimization. Thus, we propose a new sharpness-aware training method that mitigates the privacy-optimization trade-off. Our experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method improves the performance of deep learning models with DP from both scratch and fine-tuning. Code is available at https://github.com/jinseongP/DPSAT.
Sharpness-aware minimization (SAM) is a recently proposed training method that seeks to find flat minima in deep learning, resulting in state-of-the-art performance across various domains. Instead of minimizing the loss of the current weights, SAM minimizes the worst-case loss in its neighborhood in the parameter space. In this paper, we demonstrate that SAM dynamics can have convergence instability that occurs near a saddle point. Utilizing the qualitative theory of dynamical systems, we explain how SAM becomes stuck in the saddle point and then theoretically prove that the saddle point can become an attractor under SAM dynamics. Additionally, we show that this convergence instability can also occur in stochastic dynamical systems by establishing the diffusion of SAM. We prove that SAM diffusion is worse than that of vanilla gradient descent in terms of saddle point escape. Further, we demonstrate that often overlooked training tricks, momentum and batch-size, are important to mitigate the convergence instability and achieve high generalization performance. Our theoretical and empirical results are thoroughly verified through experiments on several well-known optimization problems and benchmark tasks.
Adversarial attacks have verified the existence of the vulnerability of neural networks. By adding small perturbations to a benign example, adversarial attacks successfully generate adversarial examples that lead misclassification of deep learning models. More importantly, an adversarial example generated from a specific model can also deceive other models without modification. We call this phenomenon ``transferability". Here, we analyze the relationship between transferability and input transformation with additive noise by mathematically proving that the modified optimization can produce more transferable adversarial examples.
GPT-3 shows remarkable in-context learning ability of large-scale language models (LMs) trained on hundreds of billion scale data. Here we address some remaining issues less reported by the GPT-3 paper, such as a non-English LM, the performances of different sized models, and the effect of recently introduced prompt optimization on in-context learning. To achieve this, we introduce HyperCLOVA, a Korean variant of 82B GPT-3 trained on a Korean-centric corpus of 560B tokens. Enhanced by our Korean-specific tokenization, HyperCLOVA with our training configuration shows state-of-the-art in-context zero-shot and few-shot learning performances on various downstream tasks in Korean. Also, we show the performance benefits of prompt-based learning and demonstrate how it can be integrated into the prompt engineering pipeline. Then we discuss the possibility of materializing the No Code AI paradigm by providing AI prototyping capabilities to non-experts of ML by introducing HyperCLOVA studio, an interactive prompt engineering interface. Lastly, we demonstrate the potential of our methods with three successful in-house applications.