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Authors:Zhangir Azerbayev, Bartosz Piotrowski, Hailey Schoelkopf, Edward W. Ayers, Dragomir Radev, Jeremy Avigad

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Abstract:We introduce ProofNet, a benchmark for autoformalization and formal proving of undergraduate-level mathematics. The ProofNet benchmarks consists of 371 examples, each consisting of a formal theorem statement in Lean 3, a natural language theorem statement, and a natural language proof. The problems are primarily drawn from popular undergraduate pure mathematics textbooks and cover topics such as real and complex analysis, linear algebra, abstract algebra, and topology. We intend for ProofNet to be a challenging benchmark that will drive progress in autoformalization and automatic theorem proving. We report baseline results on statement autoformalization via in-context learning. Moreover, we introduce two novel statement autoformalization methods: prompt retrieval and distilled backtranslation.

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Abstract:The prime number theorem, established by Hadamard and de la Vall'ee Poussin independently in 1896, asserts that the density of primes in the positive integers is asymptotic to 1 / ln x. Whereas their proofs made serious use of the methods of complex analysis, elementary proofs were provided by Selberg and Erd"os in 1948. We describe a formally verified version of Selberg's proof, obtained using the Isabelle proof assistant.

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