The multivariate generalized Gaussian distribution (MGGD), also known as the multivariate exponential power (MEP) distribution, is widely used in signal and image processing. However, estimating MGGD parameters, which is required in practical applications, still faces specific theoretical challenges. In particular, establishing convergence properties for the standard fixed-point approach when both the distribution mean and the scatter (or the precision) matrix are unknown is still an open problem. In robust estimation, imposing classical constraints on the precision matrix, such as sparsity, has been limited by the non-convexity of the resulting cost function. This paper tackles these issues from an optimization viewpoint by proposing a convex formulation with well-established convergence properties. We embed our analysis in a noisy scenario where robustness is induced by modelling multiplicative perturbations. The resulting framework is flexible as it combines a variety of regularizations for the precision matrix, the mean and model perturbations. This paper presents proof of the desired theoretical properties, specifies the conditions preserving these properties for different regularization choices and designs a general proximal primal-dual optimization strategy. The experiments show a more accurate precision and covariance matrix estimation with similar performance for the mean vector parameter compared to Tyler's M-estimator. In a high-dimensional setting, the proposed method outperforms the classical GLASSO, one of its robust extensions, and the regularized Tyler's estimator.
In multi-photon microscopy (MPM), a recent in-vivo fluorescence microscopy system, the task of image restoration can be decomposed into two interlinked inverse problems: firstly, the characterization of the Point Spread Function (PSF) and subsequently, the deconvolution (i.e., deblurring) to remove the PSF effect, and reduce noise. The acquired MPM image quality is critically affected by PSF blurring and intense noise. The PSF in MPM is highly spread in 3D and is not well characterized, presenting high variability with respect to the observed objects. This makes the restoration of MPM images challenging. Common PSF estimation methods in fluorescence microscopy, including MPM, involve capturing images of sub-resolution beads, followed by quantifying the resulting ellipsoidal 3D spot. In this work, we revisit this approach, coping with its inherent limitations in terms of accuracy and practicality. We estimate the PSF from the observation of relatively large beads (approximately 1$\mu$m in diameter). This goes through the formulation and resolution of an original non-convex minimization problem, for which we propose a proximal alternating method along with convergence guarantees. Following the PSF estimation step, we then introduce an innovative strategy to deal with the high level multiplicative noise degrading the acquisitions. We rely on a heteroscedastic noise model for which we estimate the parameters. We then solve a constrained optimization problem to restore the image, accounting for the estimated PSF and noise, while allowing a minimal hyper-parameter tuning. Theoretical guarantees are given for the restoration algorithm. These algorithmic contributions lead to an end-to-end pipeline for 3D image restoration in MPM, that we share as a publicly available Python software. We demonstrate its effectiveness through several experiments on both simulated and real data.
This paper presents a new approach for classifying 2D histopathology patches using few-shot learning. The method is designed to tackle a significant challenge in histopathology, which is the limited availability of labeled data. By applying a sliding window technique to histopathology slides, we illustrate the practical benefits of transductive learning (i.e., making joint predictions on patches) to achieve consistent and accurate classification. Our approach involves an optimization-based strategy that actively penalizes the prediction of a large number of distinct classes within each window. We conducted experiments on histopathological data to classify tissue classes in digital slides of liver cancer, specifically hepatocellular carcinoma. The initial results show the effectiveness of our method and its potential to enhance the process of automated cancer diagnosis and treatment, all while reducing the time and effort required for expert annotation.
Ensemble learning leverages multiple models (i.e., weak learners) on a common machine learning task to enhance prediction performance. Basic ensembling approaches average the weak learners outputs, while more sophisticated ones stack a machine learning model in between the weak learners outputs and the final prediction. This work fuses both aforementioned frameworks. We introduce an aggregated f-average (AFA) shallow neural network which models and combines different types of averages to perform an optimal aggregation of the weak learners predictions. We emphasise its interpretable architecture and simple training strategy, and illustrate its good performance on the problem of few-shot class incremental learning.
Several decades ago, Support Vector Machines (SVMs) were introduced for performing binary classification tasks, under a supervised framework. Nowadays, they often outperform other supervised methods and remain one of the most popular approaches in the machine learning arena. In this work, we investigate the training of SVMs through a smooth sparse-promoting-regularized squared hinge loss minimization. This choice paves the way to the application of quick training methods built on majorization-minimization approaches, benefiting from the Lipschitz differentiabililty of the loss function. Moreover, the proposed approach allows us to handle sparsity-preserving regularizers promoting the selection of the most significant features, so enhancing the performance. Numerical tests and comparisons conducted on three different datasets demonstrate the good performance of the proposed methodology in terms of qualitative metrics (accuracy, precision, recall, and F 1 score) as well as computational cost.
Optical fibres aim to image in-vivo biological processes. In this context, high spatial resolution and stability to fibre movements are key to enable decision-making processes (e.g., for microendoscopy). Recently, a single-pixel imaging technique based on a multicore fibre photonic lantern has been designed, named computational optical imaging using a lantern (COIL). A proximal algorithm based on a sparsity prior, dubbed SARA-COIL, has been further proposed to enable image reconstructions for high resolution COIL microendoscopy. In this work, we develop a data-driven approach for COIL. We replace the sparsity prior in the proximal algorithm by a learned denoiser, leading to a plug-and-play (PnP) algorithm. We use recent results in learning theory to train a network with desirable Lipschitz properties. We show that the resulting primal-dual PnP algorithm converges to a solution to a monotone inclusion problem. Our simulations highlight that the proposed data-driven approach improves the reconstruction quality over variational SARA-COIL method on both simulated and real data.
Standard few-shot benchmarks are often built upon simplifying assumptions on the query sets, which may not always hold in practice. In particular, for each task at testing time, the classes effectively present in the unlabeled query set are known a priori, and correspond exactly to the set of classes represented in the labeled support set. We relax these assumptions and extend current benchmarks, so that the query-set classes of a given task are unknown, but just belong to a much larger set of possible classes. Our setting could be viewed as an instance of the challenging yet practical problem of extremely imbalanced K-way classification, K being much larger than the values typically used in standard benchmarks, and with potentially irrelevant supervision from the support set. Expectedly, our setting incurs drops in the performances of state-of-the-art methods. Motivated by these observations, we introduce a PrimAl Dual Minimum Description LEngth (PADDLE) formulation, which balances data-fitting accuracy and model complexity for a given few-shot task, under supervision constraints from the support set. Our constrained MDL-like objective promotes competition among a large set of possible classes, preserving only effective classes that befit better the data of a few-shot task. It is hyperparameter free, and could be applied on top of any base-class training. Furthermore, we derive a fast block coordinate descent algorithm for optimizing our objective, with convergence guarantee, and a linear computational complexity at each iteration. Comprehensive experiments over the standard few-shot datasets and the more realistic and challenging i-Nat dataset show highly competitive performances of our method, more so when the numbers of possible classes in the tasks increase. Our code is publicly available at https://github.com/SegoleneMartin/PADDLE.
Bayesian neural networks (BNNs) have received an increased interest in the last years. In BNNs, a complete posterior distribution of the unknown weight and bias parameters of the network is produced during the training stage. This probabilistic estimation offers several advantages with respect to point-wise estimates, in particular, the ability to provide uncertainty quantification when predicting new data. This feature inherent to the Bayesian paradigm, is useful in countless machine learning applications. It is particularly appealing in areas where decision-making has a crucial impact, such as medical healthcare or autonomous driving. The main challenge of BNNs is the computational cost of the training procedure since Bayesian techniques often face a severe curse of dimensionality. Adaptive importance sampling (AIS) is one of the most prominent Monte Carlo methodologies benefiting from sounded convergence guarantees and ease for adaptation. This work aims to show that AIS constitutes a successful approach for designing BNNs. More precisely, we propose a novel algorithm PMCnet that includes an efficient adaptation mechanism, exploiting geometric information on the complex (often multimodal) posterior distribution. Numerical results illustrate the excellent performance and the improved exploration capabilities of the proposed method for both shallow and deep neural networks.
This paper addresses the problem of image reconstruction for region-of-interest (ROI) computed tomography (CT). While model-based iterative methods can be used for such a problem, their practicability is often limited due to tedious parameterization and slow convergence. In addition, inadequate solutions can be obtained when the retained priors do not perfectly fit the solution space. Deep learning methods offer an alternative approach that is fast, leverages information from large data sets, and thus can reach high reconstruction quality. However, these methods usually rely on black boxes not accounting for the physics of the imaging system, and their lack of interpretability is often deplored. At the crossroads of both methods, unfolded deep learning techniques have been recently proposed. They incorporate the physics of the model and iterative optimization algorithms into a neural network design, leading to superior performance in various applications. This paper introduces a novel, unfolded deep learning approach called U-RDBFB designed for ROI CT reconstruction from limited data. Few-view truncated data are efficiently handled thanks to a robust non-convex data fidelity function combined with sparsity-inducing regularization functions. Iterations of a block dual forward-backward (DBFB) algorithm, embedded in an iterative reweighted scheme, are then unrolled over a neural network architecture, allowing the learning of various parameters in a supervised manner. Our experiments show an improvement over various state-of-the-art methods, including model-based iterative schemes, deep learning architectures, and deep unfolding methods.
The joint problem of reconstruction / feature extraction is a challenging task in image processing. It consists in performing, in a joint manner, the restoration of an image and the extraction of its features. In this work, we firstly propose a novel nonsmooth and nonconvex variational formulation of the problem. For this purpose, we introduce a versatile generalised Gaussian prior whose parameters, including its exponent, are space-variant. Secondly, we design an alternating proximal-based optimisation algorithm that efficiently exploits the structure of the proposed nonconvex objective function. We also analyze the convergence of this algorithm. As shown in numerical experiments conducted on joint segmentation/deblurring tasks, the proposed method provides high-quality results.