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Enrico Giunchiglia, Joohyung Lee, Vladimir Lifschitz, Hudson Turner

This paper continues the line of work on representing properties of actions in nonmonotonic formalisms that stresses the distinction between being "true" and being "caused", as in the system of causal logic introduced by McCain and Turner and in the action language C proposed by Giunchiglia and Lifschitz. The only fluents directly representable in language C+ are truth-valued fluents, which is often inconvenient. We show that both causal logic and language C can be extended to allow values from arbitrary nonempty sets. Our extension of language C, called C+, also makes it possible to describe actions in terms of their attributes, which is important from the perspective of elaboration tolerance. We describe an embedding of C+ in causal theories with multi-valued constants, relate C+ to Pednault's action language ADL, and show how multi-valued constants can be eliminated in favor of Boolean constants.

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Hudson Turner

Logic programs P and Q are strongly equivalent if, given any program R, programs P union R and Q union R are equivalent (that is, have the same answer sets). Strong equivalence is convenient for the study of equivalent transformations of logic programs: one can prove that a local change is correct without considering the whole program. Lifschitz, Pearce and Valverde showed that Heyting's logic of here-and-there can be used to characterize strong equivalence for logic programs with nested expressions (which subsume the better-known extended disjunctive programs). This note considers a simpler, more direct characterization of strong equivalence for such programs, and shows that it can also be applied without modification to the weight constraint programs of Niemela and Simons. Thus, this characterization of strong equivalence is convenient for the study of equivalent transformations of logic programs written in the input languages of answer set programming systems dlv and smodels. The note concludes with a brief discussion of results that can be used to automate reasoning about strong equivalence, including a novel encoding that reduces the problem of deciding the strong equivalence of a pair of weight constraint programs to that of deciding the inconsistency of a weight constraint program.

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Hudson Turner

Some normal logic programs under the answer set (stable model) semantics lack the appealing property of "cautious monotonicity." That is, augmenting a program with one of its consequences may cause it to lose another of its consequences. The syntactic condition of "order-consistency" was shown by Fages to guarantee existence of an answer set. This note establishes that order-consistent programs are not only consistent, but cautiously monotonic. From this it follows that they are also "cumulative." That is, augmenting an order-consistent with some of its consequences does not alter its consequences. In fact, as we show, its answer sets remain unchanged.

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