Multimodal scene search of conversations is essential for unlocking valuable insights into social dynamics and enhancing our communication. While experts in conversational analysis have their own knowledge and skills to find key scenes, a lack of comprehensive, user-friendly tools that streamline the processing of diverse multimodal queries impedes efficiency and objectivity. To solve it, we developed Providence, a visual-programming-based tool based on design considerations derived from a formative study with experts. It enables experts to combine various machine learning algorithms to capture human behavioral cues without writing code. Our study showed its preferable usability and satisfactory output with less cognitive load imposed in accomplishing scene search tasks of conversations, verifying the importance of its customizability and transparency. Furthermore, through the in-the-wild trial, we confirmed the objectivity and reusability of the tool transform experts' workflow, suggesting the advantage of expert-AI teaming in a highly human-contextual domain.
Metaphors and sarcasm are precious fruits of our highly-evolved social communication skills. However, children with Asperger syndrome are known to have difficulties in comprehending sarcasm, even if they possess a certain level of verbal IQ sufficient for understanding metaphors. Given that, a screening test that scores the ability to understand metaphor and sarcasm has been used to differentiate Asperger syndrome from other symptoms exhibiting akin external behaviors (e.g., attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder). This study uses the standardized test to examine the capability of recent large language models (LLMs) in understanding human nuanced communication. The results divulged that, whereas their ability to comprehend metaphors has been improved with the increase of the number of model parameters, the improvement in sarcasm understanding was not observed. This implies that an alternative approach is imperative to imbue LLMs with the capacity to grasp sarcasm, which has been associated with the amygdala, a pivotal cerebral region for emotional learning, in the case of humans.
Recent text-to-audio generation techniques have the potential to allow novice users to freely generate music audio. Even if they do not have musical knowledge, such as about chord progressions and instruments, users can try various text prompts to generate audio. However, compared to the image domain, gaining a clear understanding of the space of possible music audios is difficult because users cannot listen to the variations of the generated audios simultaneously. We therefore facilitate users in exploring not only text prompts but also audio priors that constrain the text-to-audio music generation process. This dual-sided exploration enables users to discern the impact of different text prompts and audio priors on the generation results through iterative comparison of them. Our developed interface, IteraTTA, is specifically designed to aid users in refining text prompts and selecting favorable audio priors from the generated audios. With this, users can progressively reach their loosely-specified goals while understanding and exploring the space of possible results. Our implementation and discussions highlight design considerations that are specifically required for text-to-audio models and how interaction techniques can contribute to their effectiveness.
* Accepted to the 24th International Society for Music Information
Retrieval Conference (ISMIR 2023)
CatAlyst uses generative models to help workers' progress by influencing their task engagement instead of directly contributing to their task outputs. It prompts distracted workers to resume their tasks by generating a continuation of their work and presenting it as an intervention that is more context-aware than conventional (predetermined) feedback. The prompt can function by drawing their interest and lowering the hurdle for resumption even when the generated continuation is insufficient to substitute their work, while recent human-AI collaboration research aiming at work substitution depends on a stable high accuracy. This frees CatAlyst from domain-specific model-tuning and makes it applicable to various tasks. Our studies involving writing and slide-editing tasks demonstrated CatAlyst's effectiveness in helping workers swiftly resume tasks with a lowered cognitive load. The results suggest a new form of human-AI collaboration where large generative models publicly available but imperfect for each individual domain can contribute to workers' digital well-being.
* Conditionally accepted by ACM CHI Conference on Human Factors in
Computing Systems (CHI '23)
Mutation-based fuzzing has become one of the most common vulnerability discovery solutions over the last decade. Fuzzing can be optimized when targeting specific programs, and given that, some studies have employed online optimization methods to do it automatically, i.e., tuning fuzzers for any given program in a program-agnostic manner. However, previous studies have neither fully explored mutation schemes suitable for online optimization methods, nor online optimization methods suitable for mutation schemes. In this study, we propose an optimization framework called SLOPT that encompasses both a bandit-friendly mutation scheme and mutation-scheme-friendly bandit algorithms. The advantage of SLOPT is that it can generally be incorporated into existing fuzzers, such as AFL and Honggfuzz. As a proof of concept, we implemented SLOPT-AFL++ by integrating SLOPT into AFL++ and showed that the program-agnostic optimization delivered by SLOPT enabled SLOPT-AFL++ to achieve higher code coverage than AFL++ in all of ten real-world FuzzBench programs. Moreover, we ran SLOPT-AFL++ against several real-world programs from OSS-Fuzz and successfully identified three previously unknown vulnerabilities, even though these programs have been fuzzed by AFL++ for a considerable number of CPU days on OSS-Fuzz.
* To appear in Proceedings of the 2022 Annual Computer Security
Applications Conference (ACSAC '22)
In this paper, we discuss the potential of applying unsupervised anomaly detection in constructing AI-based interactive systems that deal with highly contextual situations, i.e., human-human communication, in collaboration with domain experts. We reached this approach of utilizing unsupervised anomaly detection through our experience of developing a computational support tool for executive coaching, which taught us the importance of providing interpretable results so that expert coaches can take both the results and contexts into account. The key idea behind this approach is to leave room for expert coaches to unleash their open-ended interpretations, rather than simplifying the nature of social interactions to well-defined problems that are tractable by conventional supervised algorithms. In addition, we found that this approach can be extended to nurturing novice coaches; by prompting them to interpret the results from the system, it can provide the coaches with educational opportunities. Although the applicability of this approach should be validated in other domains, we believe that the idea of leveraging unsupervised anomaly detection to construct AI-based interactive systems would shed light on another direction of human-AI communication.
* For the Communication in Human-AI Interaction Workshop at the 31st
International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence
Language models demonstrate both quantitative improvement and new qualitative capabilities with increasing scale. Despite their potentially transformative impact, these new capabilities are as yet poorly characterized. In order to inform future research, prepare for disruptive new model capabilities, and ameliorate socially harmful effects, it is vital that we understand the present and near-future capabilities and limitations of language models. To address this challenge, we introduce the Beyond the Imitation Game benchmark (BIG-bench). BIG-bench currently consists of 204 tasks, contributed by 442 authors across 132 institutions. Task topics are diverse, drawing problems from linguistics, childhood development, math, common-sense reasoning, biology, physics, social bias, software development, and beyond. BIG-bench focuses on tasks that are believed to be beyond the capabilities of current language models. We evaluate the behavior of OpenAI's GPT models, Google-internal dense transformer architectures, and Switch-style sparse transformers on BIG-bench, across model sizes spanning millions to hundreds of billions of parameters. In addition, a team of human expert raters performed all tasks in order to provide a strong baseline. Findings include: model performance and calibration both improve with scale, but are poor in absolute terms (and when compared with rater performance); performance is remarkably similar across model classes, though with benefits from sparsity; tasks that improve gradually and predictably commonly involve a large knowledge or memorization component, whereas tasks that exhibit "breakthrough" behavior at a critical scale often involve multiple steps or components, or brittle metrics; social bias typically increases with scale in settings with ambiguous context, but this can be improved with prompting.
We present our case study that aims to help professional assessors make decisions in human assessment, in which they conduct interviews with assessees and evaluate their suitability for certain job roles. Our workshop with two industrial assessors revealed that a computational system that can extract nonverbal cues of assesses from interview videos would be beneficial to assessors in terms of supporting their decision making. In response, we developed such a system based on an unsupervised anomaly detection algorithm using multimodal behavioral features such as facial keypoints, pose, head pose, and gaze. Moreover, we enabled the system to output how much each feature contributed to the outlierness of the detected cues with the purpose of enhancing its interpretability. We then conducted a preliminary study to examine the validity of the system's output by using 20 actual assessment interview videos and involving the two assessors. The results suggested the advantages of using unsupervised anomaly detection in an interpretable manner by illustrating the informativeness of its outputs for assessors. Our approach, which builds on top of the idea of separation of observation and interpretation in human-AI teaming, will facilitate human decision making in highly contextual domains, such as human assessment, while keeping their trust in the system.
* For the 2022 ACM CHI Workshop on Trust and Reliance in AI-Human Teams
Current deep learning techniques for style transfer would not be optimal for design support since their "one-shot" transfer does not fit exploratory design processes. To overcome this gap, we propose parametric transcription, which transcribes an end-to-end style transfer effect into parameter values of specific transformations available in an existing content editing tool. With this approach, users can imitate the style of a reference sample in the tool that they are familiar with and thus can easily continue further exploration by manipulating the parameters. To enable this, we introduce a framework that utilizes an existing pretrained model for style transfer to calculate a perceptual style distance to the reference sample and uses black-box optimization to find the parameters that minimize this distance. Our experiments with various third-party tools, such as Instagram and Blender, show that our framework can effectively leverage deep learning techniques for computational design support.