This paper presents a comprehensive review of recent advancements in image processing and deep learning techniques for pavement distress detection and classification, a critical aspect in modern pavement management systems. The conventional manual inspection process conducted by human experts is gradually being superseded by automated solutions, leveraging machine learning and deep learning algorithms to enhance efficiency and accuracy. The ability of these algorithms to discern patterns and make predictions based on extensive datasets has revolutionized the domain of pavement distress identification. The paper investigates the integration of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for data collection, offering unique advantages such as aerial perspectives and efficient coverage of large areas. By capturing high-resolution images, UAVs provide valuable data that can be processed using deep learning algorithms to detect and classify various pavement distresses effectively. While the primary focus is on 2D image processing, the paper also acknowledges the challenges associated with 3D images, such as sensor limitations and computational requirements. Understanding these challenges is crucial for further advancements in the field. The findings of this review significantly contribute to the evolution of pavement distress detection, fostering the development of efficient pavement management systems. As automated approaches continue to mature, the implementation of deep learning techniques holds great promise in ensuring safer and more durable road infrastructure for the benefit of society.
The analysis of 3D point clouds has diverse applications in robotics, vision and graphics. Processing them presents specific challenges since they are naturally sparse, can vary in spatial resolution and are typically unordered. Graph-based networks to abstract features have emerged as a promising alternative to convolutional neural networks for their analysis, but these can be computationally heavy as well as memory inefficient. To address these limitations we introduce a novel Multi-level Graph Convolution Neural (MLGCN) model, which uses Graph Neural Networks (GNN) blocks to extract features from 3D point clouds at specific locality levels. Our approach employs precomputed graph KNNs, where each KNN graph is shared between GCN blocks inside a GNN block, making it both efficient and effective compared to present models. We demonstrate the efficacy of our approach on point cloud based object classification and part segmentation tasks on benchmark datasets, showing that it produces comparable results to those of state-of-the-art models while requiring up to a thousand times fewer floating-point operations (FLOPs) and having significantly reduced storage requirements. Thus, our MLGCN model could be particular relevant to point cloud based 3D shape analysis in industrial applications when computing resources are scarce.
Content-based image retrieval is the process of retrieving a subset of images from an extensive image gallery based on visual contents, such as color, shape or spatial relations, and texture. In some applications, such as localization, image retrieval is employed as the initial step. In such cases, the accuracy of the top-retrieved images significantly affects the overall system accuracy. The current paper introduces a simple yet efficient image retrieval system with a fewer trainable parameters, which offers acceptable accuracy in top-retrieved images. The proposed method benefits from a dilated residual convolutional neural network with triplet loss. Experimental evaluations show that this model can extract richer information (i.e., high-resolution representations) by enlarging the receptive field, thus improving image retrieval accuracy without increasing the depth or complexity of the model. To enhance the extracted representations' robustness, the current research obtains candidate regions of interest from each feature map and applies Generalized-Mean pooling to the regions. As the choice of triplets in a triplet-based network affects the model training, we employ a triplet online mining method. We test the performance of the proposed method under various configurations on two of the challenging image-retrieval datasets, namely Revisited Paris6k (RPar) and UKBench. The experimental results show an accuracy of 94.54 and 80.23 (mean precision at rank 10) in the RPar medium and hard modes and 3.86 (recall at rank 4) in the UKBench dataset, respectively.
Humans can easily perceive illusory contours and complete missing forms in fragmented shapes. This work investigates whether such capability can arise in convolutional neural networks (CNNs) using deep structural priors computed directly from images. In this work, we present a framework that completes disconnected contours and connects fragmented lines and curves. In our framework, we propose a model that does not even need to know which regions of the contour are eliminated. We introduce an iterative process that completes an incomplete image and we propose novel measures that guide this to find regions it needs to complete. Our model trains on a single image and fills in the contours with no additional training data. Our work builds a robust framework to achieve contour completion using deep structural priors and extensively investigate how such a model could be implemented.
Automatic image captioning, which involves describing the contents of an image, is a challenging problem with many applications in various research fields. One notable example is designing assistants for the visually impaired. Recently, there have been significant advances in image captioning methods owing to the breakthroughs in deep learning. This survey paper aims to provide a structured review of recent image captioning techniques, and their performance, focusing mainly on deep learning methods. We also review widely-used datasets and performance metrics, in addition to the discussions on open problems and unsolved challenges in image captioning.
Graph convolutional networks (GCNs) allow us to learn topologically-aware node embeddings, which can be useful for classification or link prediction. However, by construction, they lack positional awareness and are unable to capture long-range dependencies without adding additional layers -- which in turn leads to over-smoothing and increased time and space complexity. Further, the complex dependencies between nodes make mini-batching challenging, limiting their applicability to large graphs. This paper proposes a Scalable Multi-resolution Graph Representation Learning (SMGRL) framework that enables us to learn multi-resolution node embeddings efficiently. Our framework is model-agnostic and can be applied to any existing GCN model. We dramatically reduce training costs by training only on a reduced-dimension coarsening of the original graph, then exploit self-similarity to apply the resulting algorithm at multiple resolutions. Inference of these multi-resolution embeddings can be distributed across multiple machines to reduce computational and memory requirements further. The resulting multi-resolution embeddings can be aggregated to yield high-quality node embeddings that capture both long- and short-range dependencies between nodes. Our experiments show that this leads to improved classification accuracy, without incurring high computational costs.
Autonomous vehicles are the culmination of advances in many areas such as sensor technologies, artificial intelligence (AI), networking, and more. This paper will introduce the reader to the technologies that build autonomous vehicles. It will focus on open-source tools and libraries for autonomous vehicle development, making it cheaper and easier for developers and researchers to participate in the field. The topics covered are as follows. First, we will discuss the sensors used in autonomous vehicles and summarize their performance in different environments, costs, and unique features. Then we will cover Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) and algorithms for each modality. Third, we will review popular open-source driving simulators, a cost-effective way to train machine learning models and test vehicle software performance. We will then highlight embedded operating systems and the security and development considerations when choosing one. After that, we will discuss Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) and Internet-of-Vehicle (IoV) communication, which are areas that fuse networking technologies with autonomous vehicles to extend their functionality. We will then review the five levels of vehicle automation, commercial and open-source Advanced Driving Assistance Systems, and their features. Finally, we will touch on the major manufacturing and software companies involved in the field, their investments, and their partnerships. These topics will give the reader an understanding of the industry, its technologies, active research, and the tools available for developers to build autonomous vehicles.
Objective: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune, and demyelinating disease that leads to lesions in the central nervous system. This disease can be tracked and diagnosed using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Up to now a multitude of multimodality automatic biomedical approaches is used to segment lesions which are not beneficial for patients in terms of cost, time, and usability. The authors of the present paper propose a method employing just one modality (FLAIR image) to segment MS lesions accurately. Methods: A patch-based Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) is designed, inspired by 3D-ResNet and spatial-channel attention module, to segment MS lesions. The proposed method consists of three stages: (1) the contrast-limited adaptive histogram equalization (CLAHE) is applied to the original images and concatenated to the extracted edges in order to create 4D images; (2) the patches of size 80 * 80 * 80 * 2 are randomly selected from the 4D images; and (3) the extracted patches are passed into an attention-based CNN which is used to segment the lesions. Finally, the proposed method was compared to previous studies of the same dataset. Results: The current study evaluates the model, with a test set of ISIB challenge data. Experimental results illustrate that the proposed approach significantly surpasses existing methods in terms of Dice similarity and Absolute Volume Difference while the proposed method use just one modality (FLAIR) to segment the lesions. Conclusions: The authors have introduced an automated approach to segment the lesions which is based on, at most, two modalities as an input. The proposed architecture is composed of convolution, deconvolution, and an SCA-VoxRes module as an attention module. The results show, the proposed method outperforms well compare to other methods.
In recent years there has been a resurgence of interest in our community in the shape analysis of 3D objects represented by surface meshes, their voxelized interiors, or surface point clouds. In part, this interest has been stimulated by the increased availability of RGBD cameras, and by applications of computer vision to autonomous driving, medical imaging, and robotics. In these settings, spectral coordinates have shown promise for shape representation due to their ability to incorporate both local and global shape properties in a manner that is qualitatively invariant to isometric transformations. Yet, surprisingly, such coordinates have thus far typically considered only local surface positional or derivative information. In the present article, we propose to equip spectral coordinates with medial (object width) information, so as to enrich them. The key idea is to couple surface points that share a medial ball, via the weights of the adjacency matrix. We develop a spectral feature using this idea, and the algorithms to compute it. The incorporation of object width and medial coupling has direct benefits, as illustrated by our experiments on object classification, object part segmentation, and surface point correspondence.