Practitioners building classifiers often start with a smaller pilot dataset and plan to grow to larger data in the near future. Such projects need a toolkit for extrapolating how much classifier accuracy may improve from a 2x, 10x, or 50x increase in data size. While existing work has focused on finding a single "best-fit" curve using various functional forms like power laws, we argue that modeling and assessing the uncertainty of predictions is critical yet has seen less attention. In this paper, we propose a Gaussian process model to obtain probabilistic extrapolations of accuracy or similar performance metrics as dataset size increases. We evaluate our approach in terms of error, likelihood, and coverage across six datasets. Though we focus on medical tasks and image modalities, our open source approach generalizes to any kind of classifier.
As more and more infection-specific machine learning models are developed and planned for clinical deployment, simultaneously running predictions from different models may provide overlapping or even conflicting information. It is important to understand the concordance and behavior of parallel models in deployment. In this study, we focus on two models for the early detection of hospital-acquired infections (HAIs): 1) the Infection Risk Index (IRI) and 2) the Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (VAP) prediction model. The IRI model was built to predict all HAIs, whereas the VAP model identifies patients at risk of developing ventilator-associated pneumonia. These models could make important improvements in patient outcomes and hospital management of infections through early detection of infections and in turn, enable early interventions. The two models vary in terms of infection label definition, cohort selection, and prediction schema. In this work, we present a comparative analysis between the two models to characterize concordances and confusions in predicting HAIs by these models. The learnings from this study will provide important findings for how to deploy multiple concurrent disease-specific models in the future.
* Extended Abstract presented at Machine Learning for Health (ML4H)
symposium 2023, December 10th, 2023, New Orleans, United States, 4 pages