Get our free extension to see links to code for papers anywhere online!Free add-on: code for papers everywhere!Free add-on: See code for papers anywhere!

We focus on verifying relational properties defined over deep neural networks (DNNs) such as robustness against universal adversarial perturbations (UAP), certified worst-case hamming distance for binary string classifications, etc. Precise verification of these properties requires reasoning about multiple executions of the same DNN. However, most of the existing works in DNN verification only handle properties defined over single executions and as a result, are imprecise for relational properties. Though few recent works for relational DNN verification, capture linear dependencies between the inputs of multiple executions, they do not leverage dependencies between the outputs of hidden layers producing imprecise results. We develop a scalable relational verifier RACoon that utilizes cross-execution dependencies at all layers of the DNN gaining substantial precision over SOTA baselines on a wide range of datasets, networks, and relational properties.

Via

Parametric feature-based reward models are widely employed by algorithms for decision making settings such as bandits and contextual bandits. The typical assumption under which they are analysed is realizability, i.e., that the true rewards of actions are perfectly explained by some parametric model in the class. We are, however, interested in the situation where the true rewards are (potentially significantly) misspecified with respect to the model class. For parameterized bandits and contextual bandits, we identify sufficient conditions, depending on the problem instance and model class, under which classic algorithms such as $\epsilon$-greedy and LinUCB enjoy sublinear (in the time horizon) regret guarantees under even grossly misspecified rewards. This is in contrast to existing worst-case results for misspecified bandits which show regret bounds that scale linearly with time, and shows that there can be a nontrivially large set of bandit instances that are robust to misspecification.

Via

Randomized smoothing-based certification is an effective approach for obtaining robustness certificates of deep neural networks (DNNs) against adversarial attacks. This method constructs a smoothed DNN model and certifies its robustness through statistical sampling, but it is computationally expensive, especially when certifying with a large number of samples. Furthermore, when the smoothed model is modified (e.g., quantized or pruned), certification guarantees may not hold for the modified DNN, and recertifying from scratch can be prohibitively expensive. We present the first approach for incremental robustness certification for randomized smoothing, IRS. We show how to reuse the certification guarantees for the original smoothed model to certify an approximated model with very few samples. IRS significantly reduces the computational cost of certifying modified DNNs while maintaining strong robustness guarantees. We experimentally demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach, showing up to 3x certification speedup over the certification that applies randomized smoothing of the approximate model from scratch.

Via

Complete verification of deep neural networks (DNNs) can exactly determine whether the DNN satisfies a desired trustworthy property (e.g., robustness, fairness) on an infinite set of inputs or not. Despite the tremendous progress to improve the scalability of complete verifiers over the years on individual DNNs, they are inherently inefficient when a deployed DNN is updated to improve its inference speed or accuracy. The inefficiency is because the expensive verifier needs to be run from scratch on the updated DNN. To improve efficiency, we propose a new, general framework for incremental and complete DNN verification based on the design of novel theory, data structure, and algorithms. Our contributions implemented in a tool named IVAN yield an overall geometric mean speedup of 2.4x for verifying challenging MNIST and CIFAR10 classifiers and a geometric mean speedup of 3.8x for the ACAS-XU classifiers over the state-of-the-art baselines.

Via

In recent years numerous methods have been developed to formally verify the robustness of deep neural networks (DNNs). Though the proposed techniques are effective in providing mathematical guarantees about the DNNs behavior, it is not clear whether the proofs generated by these methods are human-interpretable. In this paper, we bridge this gap by developing new concepts, algorithms, and representations to generate human understandable interpretations of the proofs. Leveraging the proposed method, we show that the robustness proofs of standard DNNs rely on spurious input features, while the proofs of DNNs trained to be provably robust filter out even the semantically meaningful features. The proofs for the DNNs combining adversarial and provably robust training are the most effective at selectively filtering out spurious features as well as relying on human-understandable input features.

Via

As noted in the works of \cite{lattimore2020bandit}, it has been mentioned that it is an open problem to characterize the minimax regret of linear bandits in a wide variety of action spaces. In this article we present an optimal regret lower bound for a wide class of convex action spaces.

Via

Given $X_1,\cdot ,X_N$ random variables whose joint distribution is given as $\mu$ we will use the Martingale Method to show any Lipshitz Function $f$ over these random variables is subgaussian. The Variance parameter however can have a simple expression under certain conditions. For example under the assumption that the random variables follow a Markov Chain and that the function is Lipschitz under a Weighted Hamming Metric. We shall conclude with certain well known techniques from concentration of suprema of random processes with applications in Reinforcement Learning

Via

We present a non-asymptotic lower bound on the eigenspectrum of the design matrix generated by any linear bandit algorithm with sub-linear regret when the action set has well-behaved curvature. Specifically, we show that the minimum eigenvalue of the expected design matrix grows as $\Omega(\sqrt{n})$ whenever the expected cumulative regret of the algorithm is $O(\sqrt{n})$, where $n$ is the learning horizon, and the action-space has a constant Hessian around the optimal arm. This shows that such action-spaces force a polynomial lower bound rather than a logarithmic lower bound, as shown by \cite{lattimore2017end}, in discrete (i.e., well-separated) action spaces. Furthermore, while the previous result is shown to hold only in the asymptotic regime (as $n \to \infty$), our result for these ``locally rich" action spaces is any-time. Additionally, under a mild technical assumption, we obtain a similar lower bound on the minimum eigen value holding with high probability. We apply our result to two practical scenarios -- \emph{model selection} and \emph{clustering} in linear bandits. For model selection, we show that an epoch-based linear bandit algorithm adapts to the true model complexity at a rate exponential in the number of epochs, by virtue of our novel spectral bound. For clustering, we consider a multi agent framework where we show, by leveraging the spectral result, that no forced exploration is necessary -- the agents can run a linear bandit algorithm and estimate their underlying parameters at once, and hence incur a low regret.

Via

An algorithm is proposed for policy evaluation in Markov Decision Processes which gives good empirical results with respect to convergence rates. The algorithm tracks the Projected Bellman Error and is implemented as a true gradient based algorithm. In this respect this algorithm differs from TD($\lambda$) class of algorithms. This algorithm tracks the Projected Bellman Algorithm and is therefore different from the class of residual algorithms. Further the convergence of this algorithm is empirically much faster than GTD2 class of algorithms which aim at tracking the Projected Bellman Error. We implemented proposed algorithm in DQN and DDPG framework and found that our algorithm achieves comparable results in both of these experiments

Via

Hex is a complex game with a high branching factor. For the first time Hex is being attempted to be solved without the use of game tree structures and associated methods of pruning. We also are abstaining from any heuristic information about Virtual Connections or Semi Virtual Connections which were previously used in all previous known computer versions of the game. The H-search algorithm which was the basis of finding such connections and had been used with success in previous Hex playing agents has been forgone. Instead what we use is reinforcement learning through self play and approximations through neural networks to by pass the problem of high branching factor and maintaining large tables for state-action evaluations. Our code is based primarily on NeuroHex. The inspiration is drawn from the recent success of AlphaGo Zero.

Via