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Authors:Davide Poderini, Emanuele Polino, Giovanni Rodari, Alessia Suprano, Rafael Chaves, Fabio Sciarrino

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Abstract:The violation of a Bell inequality is the paradigmatic example of device-independent quantum information: the nonclassicality of the data is certified without the knowledge of the functioning of devices. In practice, however, all Bell experiments rely on the precise understanding of the underlying physical mechanisms. Given that, it is natural to ask: Can one witness nonclassical behaviour in a truly black-box scenario? Here we propose and implement, computationally and experimentally, a solution to this ab-initio task. It exploits a robust automated optimization approach based on the Stochastic Nelder-Mead algorithm. Treating preparation and measurement devices as black-boxes, and relying on the observed statistics only, our adaptive protocol approaches the optimal Bell inequality violation after a limited number of iterations for a variety photonic states, measurement responses and Bell scenarios. In particular, we exploit it for randomness certification from unknown states and measurements. Our results demonstrate the power of automated algorithms, opening a new venue for the experimental implementation of device-independent quantum technologies.

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Authors:Rafael Chaves, George Moreno, Emanuele Polino, Davide Poderini, Iris Agresti, Alessia Suprano, Mariana R. Barros, Gonzalo Carvacho, Elie Wolfe, Askery Canabarro(+2 more)

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Abstract:Bell's theorem is typically understood as the proof that quantum theory is incompatible with local hidden variable models. More generally, we can see the violation of a Bell inequality as witnessing the impossibility of explaining quantum correlations with classical causal models. The violation of a Bell inequality, however, does not exclude classical models where some level of measurement dependence is allowed, that is, the choice made by observers can be correlated with the source generating the systems to be measured. Here we show that the level of measurement dependence can be quantitatively upper bounded if we arrange the Bell test within a network. Furthermore, we also prove that these results can be adapted in order to derive non-linear Bell inequalities for a large class of causal networks and to identify quantumly realizable correlations which violate them.

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Authors:Andrea Rocchetto, Scott Aaronson, Simone Severini, Gonzalo Carvacho, Davide Poderini, Iris Agresti, Marco Bentivegna, Fabio Sciarrino

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Abstract:The number of parameters describing a quantum state is well known to grow exponentially with the number of particles. This scaling clearly limits our ability to do tomography to systems with no more than a few qubits and has been used to argue against the universal validity of quantum mechanics itself. However, from a computational learning theory perspective, it can be shown that, in a probabilistic setting, quantum states can be approximately learned using only a linear number of measurements. Here we experimentally demonstrate this linear scaling in optical systems with up to 6 qubits. Our results highlight the power of computational learning theory to investigate quantum information, provide the first experimental demonstration that quantum states can be "probably approximately learned" with access to a number of copies of the state that scales linearly with the number of qubits, and pave the way to probing quantum states at new, larger scales.

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