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Abstract:We refer to the setting where the (partial) derivatives of a neural network's (NN's) predictions with respect to its inputs are used as additional training signal as a derivative-constrained (DC) NN. This situation is common in physics-informed settings in the natural sciences. We propose an integrated RELU (IReLU) activation function to improve training of DC NNs. We also investigate denormalization and label rescaling to help stabilize DC training. We evaluate our methods on physics-informed settings including quantum chemistry and Scientific Machine Learning (SciML) tasks. We demonstrate that existing architectures with IReLU activations combined with denormalization and label rescaling better incorporate training signal provided by derivative constraints.

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Abstract:The recent surge in research interest in applying large language models (LLMs) to decision-making tasks has flourished by leveraging the extensive world knowledge embedded in LLMs. While there is a growing demand to tailor LLMs for custom decision-making tasks, finetuning them for specific tasks is resource-intensive and may diminish the model's generalization capabilities. Moreover, state-of-the-art language models like GPT-4 and Claude are primarily accessible through API calls, with their parametric weights remaining proprietary and unavailable to the public. This scenario emphasizes the growing need for new methodologies that allow learning from agent experiences without requiring parametric updates. To address these problems, we introduce the Experiential Learning (ExpeL) agent. Our agent autonomously gathers experiences and extracts knowledge using natural language from a collection of training tasks. At inference, the agent recalls its extracted insights and past experiences to make informed decisions. Our empirical results highlight the robust learning efficacy of the ExpeL agent, indicating a consistent enhancement in its performance as it accumulates experiences. We further explore the emerging capabilities and transfer learning potential of the ExpeL agent through qualitative observations and additional experiments.

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Abstract:We introduce a prototype probabilistic programming language (PPL) called Pus$\mathbb{H}$ for performing Bayesian inference on function spaces with a focus on Bayesian deep learning (BDL). We describe the core abstraction of Pus$\mathbb{H}$ based on particles that links models, specified as neural networks (NNs), with inference, specified as procedures on particles using a programming model inspired by message passing. Finally, we test Pus$\mathbb{H}$ on a variety of models and datasets used in scientific machine learning (SciML), a domain with natural function space inference problems, and we evaluate scaling of Pus$\mathbb{H}$ on single-node multi-GPU devices. Thus we explore the combination of probabilistic programming, NNs, and concurrency in the context of Bayesian inference on function spaces. The code can be found at https://github.com/lbai-lab/PusH.

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Authors:Daniel Huang

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Abstract:In this paper, we consider the problem of learning a (first-order) theorem prover where we use a representation of beliefs in mathematical claims instead of a proof system to search for proofs. The inspiration for doing so comes from the practices of human mathematicians where a proof system is typically used after the fact to justify a sequence of intuitive steps obtained by "plausible reasoning" rather than to discover them. Towards this end, we introduce a probabilistic representation of beliefs in first-order statements based on first-order distributive normal forms (dnfs) devised by the philosopher Jaakko Hintikka. Notably, the representation supports Bayesian update and does not enforce that logically equivalent statements are assigned the same probability---otherwise, we would end up in a circular situation where we require a prover in order to assign beliefs. We then examine (1) conjecturing as (statistical) model selection and (2) an alternating-turn proving game amenable (in principle) to self-play training to learn a prover that is both complete in the limit and sound provided that players maintain "reasonable" beliefs. Dnfs have super-exponential space requirements so the ideas in this paper should be taken as conducting a thought experiment on "learning to prove". As a step towards making the ideas practical, we will comment on how abstractions can be used to control the space requirements at the cost of completeness.

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Abstract:In this paper, we introduce a system called GamePad that can be used to explore the application of machine learning methods to theorem proving in the Coq proof assistant. Interactive theorem provers such as Coq enable users to construct machine-checkable proofs in a step-by-step manner. Hence, they provide an opportunity to explore theorem proving at a human level of abstraction. We use GamePad to synthesize proofs for a simple algebraic rewrite problem and train baseline models for a formalization of the Feit-Thompson theorem. We address position evaluation (i.e., predict the number of proof steps left) and tactic prediction (i.e., predict the next proof step) tasks, which arise naturally in human-level theorem proving.

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Authors:Jean-Baptiste Tristan, Daniel Huang, Joseph Tassarotti, Adam Pocock, Stephen J. Green, Guy L. Steele Jr

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Abstract:It is time-consuming and error-prone to implement inference procedures for each new probabilistic model. Probabilistic programming addresses this problem by allowing a user to specify the model and having a compiler automatically generate an inference procedure for it. For this approach to be practical, it is important to generate inference code that has reasonable performance. In this paper, we present a probabilistic programming language and compiler for Bayesian networks designed to make effective use of data-parallel architectures such as GPUs. Our language is fully integrated within the Scala programming language and benefits from tools such as IDE support, type-checking, and code completion. We show that the compiler can generate data-parallel inference code scalable to thousands of GPU cores by making use of the conditional independence relationships in the Bayesian network.

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