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Abstract:Weighted First Order Model Counting (WFOMC) is fundamental to probabilistic inference in statistical relational learning models. As WFOMC is known to be intractable in general ($\#$P-complete), logical fragments that admit polynomial time WFOMC are of significant interest. Such fragments are called domain liftable. Recent works have shown that the two-variable fragment of first order logic extended with counting quantifiers ($\mathrm{C^2}$) is domain-liftable. However, many properties of real-world data, like acyclicity in citation networks and connectivity in social networks, cannot be modeled in $\mathrm{C^2}$, or first order logic in general. In this work, we expand the domain liftability of $\mathrm{C^2}$ with multiple such properties. We show that any $\mathrm{C^2}$ sentence remains domain liftable when one of its relations is restricted to represent a directed acyclic graph, a connected graph, a tree (resp. a directed tree) or a forest (resp. a directed forest). All our results rely on a novel and general methodology of "counting by splitting". Besides their application to probabilistic inference, our results provide a general framework for counting combinatorial structures. We expand a vast array of previous results in discrete mathematics literature on directed acyclic graphs, phylogenetic networks, etc.

* arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:2302.09830