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Jan N. Fuhg, Reese E. Jones, Nikolaos Bouklas

Data-driven constitutive modeling with neural networks has received increased interest in recent years due to its ability to easily incorporate physical and mechanistic constraints and to overcome the challenging and time-consuming task of formulating phenomenological constitutive laws that can accurately capture the observed material response. However, even though neural network-based constitutive laws have been shown to generalize proficiently, the generated representations are not easily interpretable due to their high number of trainable parameters. Sparse regression approaches exist that allow to obtaining interpretable expressions, but the user is tasked with creating a library of model forms which by construction limits their expressiveness to the functional forms provided in the libraries. In this work, we propose to train regularized physics-augmented neural network-based constitutive models utilizing a smoothed version of $L^{0}$-regularization. This aims to maintain the trustworthiness inherited by the physical constraints, but also enables interpretability which has not been possible thus far on any type of machine learning-based constitutive model where model forms were not assumed a-priory but were actually discovered. During the training process, the network simultaneously fits the training data and penalizes the number of active parameters, while also ensuring constitutive constraints such as thermodynamic consistency. We show that the method can reliably obtain interpretable and trustworthy constitutive models for compressible and incompressible hyperelasticity, yield functions, and hardening models for elastoplasticity, for synthetic and experimental data.

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Jan N. Fuhg, Nikolaos Bouklas, Reese E. Jones

Data-driven constitutive modeling frameworks based on neural networks and classical representation theorems have recently gained considerable attention due to their ability to easily incorporate constitutive constraints and their excellent generalization performance. In these models, the stress prediction follows from a linear combination of invariant-dependent coefficient functions and known tensor basis generators. However, thus far the formulations have been limited to stress representations based on the classical Rivlin and Ericksen form, while the performance of alternative representations has yet to be investigated. In this work, we survey a variety of tensor basis neural network models for modeling hyperelastic materials in a finite deformation context, including a number of so far unexplored formulations which use theoretically equivalent invariants and generators to Finger-Rivlin-Ericksen. Furthermore, we compare potential-based and coefficient-based approaches, as well as different calibration techniques. Nine variants are tested against both noisy and noiseless datasets for three different materials. Theoretical and practical insights into the performance of each formulation are given.

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Jan N. Fuhg, Craig M. Hamel, Kyle Johnson, Reese Jones, Nikolaos Bouklas

The development of accurate constitutive models for materials that undergo path-dependent processes continues to be a complex challenge in computational solid mechanics. Challenges arise both in considering the appropriate model assumptions and from the viewpoint of data availability, verification, and validation. Recently, data-driven modeling approaches have been proposed that aim to establish stress-evolution laws that avoid user-chosen functional forms by relying on machine learning representations and algorithms. However, these approaches not only require a significant amount of data but also need data that probes the full stress space with a variety of complex loading paths. Furthermore, they rarely enforce all necessary thermodynamic principles as hard constraints. Hence, they are in particular not suitable for low-data or limited-data regimes, where the first arises from the cost of obtaining the data and the latter from the experimental limitations of obtaining labeled data, which is commonly the case in engineering applications. In this work, we discuss a hybrid framework that can work on a variable amount of data by relying on the modularity of the elastoplasticity formulation where each component of the model can be chosen to be either a classical phenomenological or a data-driven model depending on the amount of available information and the complexity of the response. The method is tested on synthetic uniaxial data coming from simulations as well as cyclic experimental data for structural materials. The discovered material models are found to not only interpolate well but also allow for accurate extrapolation in a thermodynamically consistent manner far outside the domain of the training data. Training aspects and details of the implementation of these models into Finite Element simulations are discussed and analyzed.

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Teeratorn Kadeethum, Francesco Ballarin, Daniel O'Malley, Youngsoo Choi, Nikolaos Bouklas, Hongkyu Yoon

We propose a unified data-driven reduced order model (ROM) that bridges the performance gap between linear and nonlinear manifold approaches. Deep learning ROM (DL-ROM) using deep-convolutional autoencoders (DC-AE) has been shown to capture nonlinear solution manifolds but fails to perform adequately when linear subspace approaches such as proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) would be optimal. Besides, most DL-ROM models rely on convolutional layers, which might limit its application to only a structured mesh. The proposed framework in this study relies on the combination of an autoencoder (AE) and Barlow Twins (BT) self-supervised learning, where BT maximizes the information content of the embedding with the latent space through a joint embedding architecture. Through a series of benchmark problems of natural convection in porous media, BT-AE performs better than the previous DL-ROM framework by providing comparable results to POD-based approaches for problems where the solution lies within a linear subspace as well as DL-ROM autoencoder-based techniques where the solution lies on a nonlinear manifold; consequently, bridges the gap between linear and nonlinear reduced manifolds. Furthermore, this BT-AE framework can operate on unstructured meshes, which provides flexibility in its application to standard numerical solvers, on-site measurements, experimental data, or a combination of these sources.

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Jan Niklas Fuhg, Amélie Fau, Nikolaos Bouklas

Temporally and spatially dependent uncertain parameters are regularly encountered in engineering applications. Commonly these uncertainties are accounted for using random fields and processes which require knowledge about the appearing probability distributions functions which is not readily available. In these cases non-probabilistic approaches such as interval analysis and fuzzy set theory are helpful uncertainty measures. Partial differential equations involving fuzzy and interval fields are traditionally solved using the finite element method where the input fields are sampled using some basis function expansion methods. This approach however is problematic, as it is reliant on knowledge about the spatial correlation fields. In this work we utilize physics-informed neural networks (PINNs) to solve interval and fuzzy partial differential equations. The resulting network structures termed interval physics-informed neural networks (iPINNs) and fuzzy physics-informed neural networks (fPINNs) show promising results for obtaining bounded solutions of equations involving spatially uncertain parameter fields. In contrast to finite element approaches, no correlation length specification of the input fields as well as no averaging via Monte-Carlo simulations are necessary. In fact, information about the input interval fields is obtained directly as a byproduct of the presented solution scheme. Furthermore, all major advantages of PINNs are retained, i.e. meshfree nature of the scheme, and ease of inverse problem set-up.

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Teeratorn Kadeethum, Daniel O'Malley, Jan Niklas Fuhg, Youngsoo Choi, Jonghyun Lee, Hari S. Viswanathan, Nikolaos Bouklas

This work is the first to employ and adapt the image-to-image translation concept based on conditional generative adversarial networks (cGAN) towards learning a forward and an inverse solution operator of partial differential equations (PDEs). Even though the proposed framework could be applied as a surrogate model for the solution of any PDEs, here we focus on steady-state solutions of coupled hydro-mechanical processes in heterogeneous porous media. Strongly heterogeneous material properties, which translate to the heterogeneity of coefficients of the PDEs and discontinuous features in the solutions, require specialized techniques for the forward and inverse solution of these problems. Additionally, parametrization of the spatially heterogeneous coefficients is excessively difficult by using standard reduced order modeling techniques. In this work, we overcome these challenges by employing the image-to-image translation concept to learn the forward and inverse solution operators and utilize a U-Net generator and a patch-based discriminator. Our results show that the proposed data-driven reduced order model has competitive predictive performance capabilities in accuracy and computational efficiency as well as training time requirements compared to state-of-the-art data-driven methods for both forward and inverse problems.

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Jan Niklas Fuhg, Michele Marino, Nikolaos Bouklas

Hierarchical computational methods for multiscale mechanics such as the FE$^2$ and FE-FFT methods are generally accompanied by high computational costs. Data-driven approaches are able to speed the process up significantly by enabling to incorporate the effective micromechanical response in macroscale simulations without the need of performing additional computations at each Gauss point explicitly. Traditionally artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been the surrogate modeling technique of choice in the solid mechanics community. However they suffer from severe drawbacks due to their parametric nature and suboptimal training and inference properties for the investigated datasets in a three dimensional setting. These problems can be avoided using local approximate Gaussian process regression (laGPR). This method can allow the prediction of stress outputs at particular strain space locations by training local regression models based on Gaussian processes, using only a subset of the data for each local model, offering better and more reliable accuracy than ANNs. A modified Newton-Raphson approach is proposed to accommodate for the local nature of the laGPR approximation when solving the global structural problem in a FE setting. Hence, the presented work offers a complete and general framework enabling multiscale calculations combining a data-driven constitutive prediction using laGPR, and macroscopic calculations using an FE scheme that we test for finite-strain three-dimensional hyperelastic problems.

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Jan N. Fuhg, Nikolaos Bouklas

The introduction of Physics-informed Neural Networks (PINNs) has led to an increased interest in deep neural networks as universal approximators of PDEs in the solid mechanics community. Recently, the Deep Energy Method (DEM) has been proposed. DEM is based on energy minimization principles, contrary to PINN which is based on the residual of the PDEs. A significant advantage of DEM, is that it requires the approximation of lower order derivatives compared to formulations that are based on strong form residuals. However both DEM and classical PINN formulations struggle to resolve fine features of the stress and displacement fields, for example concentration features in solid mechanics applications. We propose an extension to the Deep Energy Method (DEM) to resolve these features for finite strain hyperelasticity. The developed framework termed mixed Deep Energy Method (mDEM) introduces stress measures as an additional output of the NN to the recently introduced pure displacement formulation. Using this approach, Neumann boundary conditions are approximated more accurately and the accuracy around spatial features which are typically responsible for high concentrations is increased. In order to make the proposed approach more versatile, we introduce a numerical integration scheme based on Delaunay integration, which enables the mDEM framework to be used for random training point position sets commonly needed for computational domains with stress concentrations. We highlight the advantages of the proposed approach while showing the shortcomings of classical PINN and DEM formulations. The method is offering comparable results to Finite-Element Method (FEM) on the forward calculation of challenging computational experiments involving domains with fine geometric features and concentrated loads.

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Jan Niklas Fuhg, Christoph Boehm, Nikolaos Bouklas, Amelie Fau, Peter Wriggers, Michele Marino

Computational multiscale methods for analyzing and deriving constitutive responses have been used as a tool in engineering problems because of their ability to combine information at different length scales. However, their application in a nonlinear framework can be limited by high computational costs, numerical difficulties, and/or inaccuracies. In this paper, a hybrid methodology is presented which combines classical constitutive laws (model-based), a data-driven correction component, and computational multiscale approaches. A model-based material representation is locally improved with data from lower scales obtained by means of a nonlinear numerical homogenization procedure leading to a model-data-driven approach. Therefore, macroscale simulations explicitly incorporate the true microscale response, maintaining the same level of accuracy that would be obtained with online micro-macro simulations but with a computational cost comparable to classical model-driven approaches. In the proposed approach, both model and data play a fundamental role allowing for the synergistic integration between a physics-based response and a machine learning black-box. Numerical applications are implemented in two dimensions for different tests investigating both material and structural responses in large deformation.

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