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Abstract:Approximate Nearest Neighbor Search (ANNS) is the task of finding the database vector that is closest to a given query vector. Graph-based ANNS is the family of methods with the best balance of accuracy and speed for million-scale datasets. However, graph-based methods have the disadvantage of long index construction time. Recently, many researchers have improved the tradeoff between accuracy and speed during a search. However, there is little research on accelerating index construction. We propose a fast graph construction algorithm, Relative NN-Descent (RNN-Descent). RNN-Descent combines NN-Descent, an algorithm for constructing approximate K-nearest neighbor graphs (K-NN graphs), and RNG Strategy, an algorithm for selecting edges effective for search. This algorithm allows the direct construction of graph-based indexes without ANNS. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method had the fastest index construction speed, while its search performance is comparable to existing state-of-the-art methods such as NSG. For example, in experiments on the GIST1M dataset, the construction of the proposed method is 2x faster than NSG. Additionally, it was even faster than the construction speed of NN-Descent.

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