Suicide remains a global health concern for the field of health, which urgently needs innovative approaches for early detection and intervention. In this paper, we focus on identifying suicidal intentions in SuicideWatch Reddit posts and present a novel approach to suicide detection using the cutting-edge RoBERTa-CNN model, a variant of RoBERTa (Robustly optimized BERT approach). RoBERTa is used for various Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks, including text classification and sentiment analysis. The effectiveness of the RoBERTa lies in its ability to capture textual information and form semantic relationships within texts. By adding the Convolution Neural Network (CNN) layer to the original model, the RoBERTa enhances its ability to capture important patterns from heavy datasets. To evaluate the RoBERTa-CNN, we experimented on the Suicide and Depression Detection dataset and obtained solid results. For example, RoBERTa-CNN achieves 98% mean accuracy with the standard deviation (STD) of 0.0009. It also reaches over 97.5% mean AUC value with an STD of 0.0013. In the meanwhile, RoBERTa-CNN outperforms competitive methods, demonstrating the robustness and ability to capture nuanced linguistic patterns for suicidal intentions. Therefore, RoBERTa-CNN can detect suicide intention on text data very well.
This paper presents a deep learning method using Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques, to distinguish between Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and Normal Cognitive (NC) conditions in older adults. We propose a framework that analyzes transcripts generated from video interviews collected within the I-CONECT study project, a randomized controlled trial aimed at improving cognitive functions through video chats. Our proposed NLP framework consists of two Transformer-based modules, namely Sentence Embedding (SE) and Sentence Cross Attention (SCA). First, the SE module captures contextual relationships between words within each sentence. Subsequently, the SCA module extracts temporal features from a sequence of sentences. This feature is then used by a Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) for the classification of subjects into MCI or NC. To build a robust model, we propose a novel loss function, called InfoLoss, that considers the reduction in entropy by observing each sequence of sentences to ultimately enhance the classification accuracy. The results of our comprehensive model evaluation using the I-CONECT dataset show that our framework can distinguish between MCI and NC with an average area under the curve of 84.75%.
Early detection of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) leads to early interventions to slow the progression from MCI into dementia. Deep Learning (DL) algorithms could help achieve early non-invasive, low-cost detection of MCI. This paper presents the detection of MCI in older adults using DL models based only on facial features extracted from video-recorded conversations at home. We used the data collected from the I-CONECT behavioral intervention study (NCT02871921), where several sessions of semi-structured interviews between socially isolated older individuals and interviewers were video recorded. We develop a framework that extracts spatial holistic facial features using a convolutional autoencoder and temporal information using transformers. Our proposed DL model was able to detect the I-CONECT study participants' cognitive conditions (MCI vs. those with normal cognition (NC)) using facial features. The segments and sequence information of the facial features improved the prediction performance compared with the non-temporal features. The detection accuracy using this combined method reached 88% whereas 84% is the accuracy without applying the segments and sequences information of the facial features within a video on a certain theme.
Deep machine learning models including Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) have been successful in the detection of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) using medical images, questionnaires, and videos. This paper proposes a novel Multi-branch Classifier-Video Vision Transformer (MC-ViViT) model to distinguish MCI from those with normal cognition by analyzing facial features. The data comes from the I-CONECT, a behavioral intervention trial aimed at improving cognitive function by providing frequent video chats. MC-ViViT extracts spatiotemporal features of videos in one branch and augments representations by the MC module. The I-CONECT dataset is challenging as the dataset is imbalanced containing Hard-Easy and Positive-Negative samples, which impedes the performance of MC-ViViT. We propose a loss function for Hard-Easy and Positive-Negative Samples (HP Loss) by combining Focal loss and AD-CORRE loss to address the imbalanced problem. Our experimental results on the I-CONECT dataset show the great potential of MC-ViViT in predicting MCI with a high accuracy of 90.63\% accuracy on some of the interview videos.
Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) are capable of synthesizing high-quality facial images. Despite their success, GANs do not provide any information about the relationship between the input vectors and the generated images. Currently, facial GANs are trained on imbalanced datasets, which generate less diverse images. For example, more than 77% of 100K images that we randomly synthesized using the StyleGAN3 are classified as Happy, and only around 3% are Angry. The problem even becomes worse when a mixture of facial attributes is desired: less than 1% of the generated samples are Angry Woman, and only around 2% are Happy Black. To address these problems, this paper proposes a framework, called GANalyzer, for the analysis, and manipulation of the latent space of well-trained GANs. GANalyzer consists of a set of transformation functions designed to manipulate latent vectors for a specific facial attribute such as facial Expression, Age, Gender, and Race. We analyze facial attribute entanglement in the latent space of GANs and apply the proposed transformation for editing the disentangled facial attributes. Our experimental results demonstrate the strength of GANalyzer in editing facial attributes and generating any desired faces. We also create and release a balanced photo-realistic human face dataset. Our code is publicly available on GitHub.
Outdoor positioning systems based on the Global Navigation Satellite System have several shortcomings that have deemed their use for indoor positioning impractical. Location fingerprinting, which utilizes machine learning, has emerged as a viable method and solution for indoor positioning due to its simple concept and accurate performance. In the past, shallow learning algorithms were traditionally used in location fingerprinting. Recently, the research community started utilizing deep learning methods for fingerprinting after witnessing the great success and superiority these methods have over traditional/shallow machine learning algorithms. This paper provides a comprehensive review of deep learning methods in indoor positioning. First, the advantages and disadvantages of various fingerprint types for indoor positioning are discussed. The solutions proposed in the literature are then analyzed, categorized, and compared against various performance evaluation metrics. Since data is key in fingerprinting, a detailed review of publicly available indoor positioning datasets is presented. While incorporating deep learning into fingerprinting has resulted in significant improvements, doing so, has also introduced new challenges. These challenges along with the common implementation pitfalls are discussed. Finally, the paper is concluded with some remarks as well as future research trends.
* Journal of Location Based Services, 14:3, 129-200
In recent years, fingerprint-based positioning has gained researchers attention since it is a promising alternative to the Global Navigation Satellite System and cellular network-based localization in urban areas. Despite this, the lack of publicly available datasets that researchers can use to develop, evaluate, and compare fingerprint-based positioning solutions constitutes a high entry barrier for studies. As an effort to overcome this barrier and foster new research efforts, this paper presents OutFin, a novel dataset of outdoor location fingerprints that were collected using two different smartphones. OutFin is comprised of diverse data types such as WiFi, Bluetooth, and cellular signal strengths, in addition to measurements from various sensors including the magnetometer, accelerometer, gyroscope, barometer, and ambient light sensor. The collection area spanned four dispersed sites with a total of 122 reference points. Each site is different in terms of its visibility to the Global Navigation Satellite System and reference points number, arrangement, and spacing. Before OutFin was made available to the public, several experiments were conducted to validate its technical quality.
This paper presents our recent research on integrating artificial emotional intelligence in a social robot (Ryan) and studies the robot's effectiveness in engaging older adults. Ryan is a socially assistive robot designed to provide companionship for older adults with depression and dementia through conversation. We used two versions of Ryan for our study, empathic and non-empathic. The empathic Ryan utilizes a multimodal emotion recognition algorithm and a multimodal emotion expression system. Using different input modalities for emotion, i.e. facial expression and speech sentiment, the empathic Ryan detects users' emotional state and utilizes an affective dialogue manager to generate a response. On the other hand, the non-empathic Ryan lacks facial expression and uses scripted dialogues that do not factor in the users' emotional state. We studied these two versions of Ryan with 10 older adults living in a senior care facility. The statistically significant improvement in the users' reported face-scale mood measurement indicates an overall positive effect from the interaction with both the empathic and non-empathic versions of Ryan. However, the number of spoken words measurement and the exit survey analysis suggest that the users perceive the empathic Ryan as more engaging and likable.
* To be published in IEEE Transactions on Affective Computing
Although Capsule Networks show great abilities in defining the position relationship between features in deep neural networks for visual recognition tasks, they are computationally expensive and not suitable for running on mobile devices. The bottleneck is in the computational complexity of the Dynamic Routing mechanism used between capsules. On the other hand, neural networks such as XNOR-Net are fast and computationally efficient but have relatively low accuracy because of their information loss in the binarization process. This paper proposes a new class of Fully Connected (FC) Layers by xnorizing the linear projector outside or inside the Dynamic Routing within the CapsFC layer. Specifically, our proposed FC layers have two versions, XnODR (Xnorizing Linear Projector Outside Dynamic Routing) and XnIDR (Xnorizing Linear Projector Inside Dynamic Routing). To test their generalization, we insert them into MobileNet V2 and ResNet-50 separately. Experiments on three datasets, MNIST, CIFAR-10, MultiMNIST validate their effectiveness. Our experimental results demonstrate that both XnODR and XnIDR help networks to have high accuracy with lower FLOPs and fewer parameters (e.g., 95.32\% accuracy with 2.99M parameters and 311.22M FLOPs on CIFAR-10).
Facial landmark detection is a vital step for numerous facial image analysis applications. Although some deep learning-based methods have achieved good performances in this task, they are often not suitable for running on mobile devices. Such methods rely on networks with many parameters, which makes the training and inference time-consuming. Training lightweight neural networks such as MobileNets are often challenging, and the models might have low accuracy. Inspired by knowledge distillation (KD), this paper presents a novel loss function to train a lightweight Student network (e.g., MobileNetV2) for facial landmark detection. We use two Teacher networks, a Tolerant-Teacher and a Tough-Teacher in conjunction with the Student network. The Tolerant-Teacher is trained using Soft-landmarks created by active shape models, while the Tough-Teacher is trained using the ground truth (aka Hard-landmarks) landmark points. To utilize the facial landmark points predicted by the Teacher networks, we define an Assistive Loss (ALoss) for each Teacher network. Moreover, we define a loss function called KD-Loss that utilizes the facial landmark points predicted by the two pre-trained Teacher networks (EfficientNet-b3) to guide the lightweight Student network towards predicting the Hard-landmarks. Our experimental results on three challenging facial datasets show that the proposed architecture will result in a better-trained Student network that can extract facial landmark points with high accuracy.
* Accepted in Computer Vision and Image Understanding Journal