This paper proposes a simple yet effective method to improve direct (X-to-Y) translation for both cases: zero-shot and when direct data is available. We modify the input tokens at both the encoder and decoder to include signals for the source and target languages. We show a performance gain when training from scratch, or finetuning a pretrained model with the proposed setup. In the experiments, our method shows nearly 10.0 BLEU points gain on in-house datasets depending on the checkpoint selection criteria. In a WMT evaluation campaign, From-English performance improves by 4.17 and 2.87 BLEU points, in the zero-shot setting, and when direct data is available for training, respectively. While X-to-Y improves by 1.29 BLEU over the zero-shot baseline, and 0.44 over the many-to-many baseline. In the low-resource setting, we see a 1.5~1.7 point improvement when finetuning on X-to-Y domain data.
Nowadays, machine learning is playing a crucial role in harnessing the power of the massive amounts of data that we are currently producing every day in our digital world. With the booming demand for machine learning applications, it has been recognized that the number of knowledgeable data scientists can not scale with the growing data volumes and application needs in our digital world. In response to this demand, several automated machine learning (AutoML) techniques and frameworks have been developed to fill the gap of human expertise by automating the process of building machine learning pipelines. In this study, we present a comprehensive evaluation and comparison of the performance characteristics of six popular AutoML frameworks, namely, Auto-Weka, AutoSKlearn, TPOT, Recipe, ATM, and SmartML across 100 data sets from established AutoML benchmark suites. Our experimental evaluation considers different aspects for its comparison including the performance impact of several design decisions including time budget, size of search space, meta-learning, and ensemble construction. The results of our study reveal various interesting insights that can significantly guide and impact the design of AutoML frameworks.
Label smoothing is widely used in deep neural networks for multi-class classification. While it enhances model generalization and reduces overconfidence by aiming to lower the probability for the predicted class, it distorts the predicted probabilities of other classes resulting in poor class-wise calibration. Another method for enhancing model generalization is self-distillation where the predictions of a teacher network trained with one-hot labels are used as the target for training a student network. We take inspiration from both label smoothing and self-distillation and propose two novel instance-based label smoothing approaches, where a teacher network trained with hard one-hot labels is used to determine the amount of per class smoothness applied to each instance. The assigned smoothing factor is non-uniformly distributed along with the classes according to their similarity with the actual class. Our methods show better generalization and calibration over standard label smoothing on various deep neural architectures and image classification datasets.
With the continuous and vast increase in the amount of data in our digital world, it has been acknowledged that the number of knowledgeable data scientists can not scale to address these challenges. Thus, there was a crucial need for automating the process of building good machine learning models. In the last few years, several techniques and frameworks have been introduced to tackle the challenge of automating the process of Combined Algorithm Selection and Hyper-parameter tuning (CASH) in the machine learning domain. The main aim of these techniques is to reduce the role of the human in the loop and fill the gap for non-expert machine learning users by playing the role of the domain expert. In this paper, we present a comprehensive survey for the state-of-the-art efforts in tackling the CASH problem. In addition, we highlight the research work of automating the other steps of the full complex machine learning pipeline (AutoML) from data understanding till model deployment. Furthermore, we provide comprehensive coverage for the various tools and frameworks that have been introduced in this domain. Finally, we discuss some of the research directions and open challenges that need to be addressed in order to achieve the vision and goals of the AutoML process.