Deep Learning models have shown remarkable performance in a broad range of vision tasks. However, they are often vulnerable against domain shifts at test-time. Test-time training (TTT) methods have been developed in an attempt to mitigate these vulnerabilities, where a secondary task is solved at training time simultaneously with the main task, to be later used as an self-supervised proxy task at test-time. In this work, we propose a novel unsupervised TTT technique based on the maximization of Mutual Information between multi-scale feature maps and a discrete latent representation, which can be integrated to the standard training as an auxiliary clustering task. Experimental results demonstrate competitive classification performance on different popular test-time adaptation benchmarks.
Standard deep learning models such as convolutional neural networks (CNNs) lack the ability of generalizing to domains which have not been seen during training. This problem is mainly due to the common but often wrong assumption of such models that the source and target data come from the same i.i.d. distribution. Recently, Vision Transformers (ViTs) have shown outstanding performance for a broad range of computer vision tasks. However, very few studies have investigated their ability to generalize to new domains. This paper presents a first Token-level Feature Stylization (TFS-ViT) approach for domain generalization, which improves the performance of ViTs to unseen data by synthesizing new domains. Our approach transforms token features by mixing the normalization statistics of images from different domains. We further improve this approach with a novel strategy for attention-aware stylization, which uses the attention maps of class (CLS) tokens to compute and mix normalization statistics of tokens corresponding to different image regions. The proposed method is flexible to the choice of backbone model and can be easily applied to any ViT-based architecture with a negligible increase in computational complexity. Comprehensive experiments show that our approach is able to achieve state-of-the-art performance on five challenging benchmarks for domain generalization, and demonstrate its ability to deal with different types of domain shifts. The implementation is available at: https://github.com/Mehrdad-Noori/TFS-ViT_Token-level_Feature_Stylization.
A major problem of deep neural networks for image classification is their vulnerability to domain changes at test-time. Recent methods have proposed to address this problem with test-time training (TTT), where a two-branch model is trained to learn a main classification task and also a self-supervised task used to perform test-time adaptation. However, these techniques require defining a proxy task specific to the target application. To tackle this limitation, we propose TTTFlow: a Y-shaped architecture using an unsupervised head based on Normalizing Flows to learn the normal distribution of latent features and detect domain shifts in test examples. At inference, keeping the unsupervised head fixed, we adapt the model to domain-shifted examples by maximizing the log likelihood of the Normalizing Flow. Our results show that our method can significantly improve the accuracy with respect to previous works.