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We present an alternative to reweighting techniques for modifying distributions to account for a desired change in an underlying conditional distribution, as is often needed to correct for mis-modelling in a simulated sample. We employ conditional normalizing flows to learn the full conditional probability distribution from which we sample new events for conditional values drawn from the target distribution to produce the desired, altered distribution. In contrast to common reweighting techniques, this procedure is independent of binning choice and does not rely on an estimate of the density ratio between two distributions. In several toy examples we show that normalizing flows outperform reweighting approaches to match the distribution of the target.We demonstrate that the corrected distribution closes well with the ground truth, and a statistical uncertainty on the training dataset can be ascertained with bootstrapping. In our examples, this leads to a statistical precision up to three times greater than using reweighting techniques with identical sample sizes for the source and target distributions. We also explore an application in the context of high energy particle physics.

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We present a new approach, the Topograph, which reconstructs underlying physics processes, including the intermediary particles, by leveraging underlying priors from the nature of particle physics decays and the flexibility of message passing graph neural networks. The Topograph not only solves the combinatoric assignment of observed final state objects, associating them to their original mother particles, but directly predicts the properties of intermediate particles in hard scatter processes and their subsequent decays. In comparison to standard combinatoric approaches or modern approaches using graph neural networks, which scale exponentially or quadratically, the complexity of Topographs scales linearly with the number of reconstructed objects. We apply Topographs to top quark pair production in the all hadronic decay channel, where we outperform the standard approach and match the performance of the state-of-the-art machine learning technique.

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