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Authors:Marçal Comajoan Cara, Gopal Ramesh Dahale, Zhongtian Dong, Roy T. Forestano, Sergei Gleyzer, Daniel Justice, Kyoungchul Kong, Tom Magorsch, Konstantin T. Matchev, Katia Matcheva(+1 more)

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Abstract:We introduce a hybrid quantum-classical vision transformer architecture, notable for its integration of variational quantum circuits within both the attention mechanism and the multi-layer perceptrons. The research addresses the critical challenge of computational efficiency and resource constraints in analyzing data from the upcoming High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider, presenting the architecture as a potential solution. In particular, we evaluate our method by applying the model to multi-detector jet images from CMS Open Data. The goal is to distinguish quark-initiated from gluon-initiated jets. We successfully train the quantum model and evaluate it via numerical simulations. Using this approach, we achieve classification performance almost on par with the one obtained with the completely classical architecture, considering a similar number of parameters.

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Authors:Eyup B. Unlu, Marçal Comajoan Cara, Gopal Ramesh Dahale, Zhongtian Dong, Roy T. Forestano, Sergei Gleyzer, Daniel Justice, Kyoungchul Kong, Tom Magorsch, Konstantin T. Matchev(+1 more)

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Abstract:Models based on vision transformer architectures are considered state-of-the-art when it comes to image classification tasks. However, they require extensive computational resources both for training and deployment. The problem is exacerbated as the amount and complexity of the data increases. Quantum-based vision transformer models could potentially alleviate this issue by reducing the training and operating time while maintaining the same predictive power. Although current quantum computers are not yet able to perform high-dimensional tasks yet, they do offer one of the most efficient solutions for the future. In this work, we construct several variations of a quantum hybrid vision transformer for a classification problem in high energy physics (distinguishing photons and electrons in the electromagnetic calorimeter). We test them against classical vision transformer architectures. Our findings indicate that the hybrid models can achieve comparable performance to their classical analogues with a similar number of parameters.

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Abstract:Theoretical physicists describe nature by i) building a theory model and ii) determining the model parameters. The latter step involves the dual aspect of both fitting to the existing experimental data and satisfying abstract criteria like beauty, naturalness, etc. We use the Yukawa quark sector as a toy example to demonstrate how both of those tasks can be accomplished with machine learning techniques. We propose loss functions whose minimization results in true models that are also beautiful as measured by three different criteria - uniformity, sparsity, or symmetry.

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Authors:Roy T. Forestano, Marçal Comajoan Cara, Gopal Ramesh Dahale, Zhongtian Dong, Sergei Gleyzer, Daniel Justice, Kyoungchul Kong, Tom Magorsch, Konstantin T. Matchev, Katia Matcheva(+1 more)

Abstract:Machine learning algorithms are heavily relied on to understand the vast amounts of data from high-energy particle collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The data from such collision events can naturally be represented with graph structures. Therefore, deep geometric methods, such as graph neural networks (GNNs), have been leveraged for various data analysis tasks in high-energy physics. One typical task is jet tagging, where jets are viewed as point clouds with distinct features and edge connections between their constituent particles. The increasing size and complexity of the LHC particle datasets, as well as the computational models used for their analysis, greatly motivate the development of alternative fast and efficient computational paradigms such as quantum computation. In addition, to enhance the validity and robustness of deep networks, one can leverage the fundamental symmetries present in the data through the use of invariant inputs and equivariant layers. In this paper, we perform a fair and comprehensive comparison between classical graph neural networks (GNNs) and equivariant graph neural networks (EGNNs) and their quantum counterparts: quantum graph neural networks (QGNNs) and equivariant quantum graph neural networks (EQGNN). The four architectures were benchmarked on a binary classification task to classify the parton-level particle initiating the jet. Based on their AUC scores, the quantum networks were shown to outperform the classical networks. However, seeing the computational advantage of the quantum networks in practice may have to wait for the further development of quantum technology and its associated APIs.

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Authors:Zhongtian Dong, Marçal Comajoan Cara, Gopal Ramesh Dahale, Roy T. Forestano, Sergei Gleyzer, Daniel Justice, Kyoungchul Kong, Tom Magorsch, Konstantin T. Matchev, Katia Matcheva(+1 more)

Abstract:This paper presents a comprehensive comparative analysis of the performance of Equivariant Quantum Neural Networks (EQNN) and Quantum Neural Networks (QNN), juxtaposed against their classical counterparts: Equivariant Neural Networks (ENN) and Deep Neural Networks (DNN). We evaluate the performance of each network with two toy examples for a binary classification task, focusing on model complexity (measured by the number of parameters) and the size of the training data set. Our results show that the $\mathbb{Z}_2\times \mathbb{Z}_2$ EQNN and the QNN provide superior performance for smaller parameter sets and modest training data samples.

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Abstract:The discovery process of building new theoretical physics models involves the dual aspect of both fitting to the existing experimental data and satisfying abstract theorists' criteria like beauty, naturalness, etc. We design loss functions for performing both of those tasks with machine learning techniques. We use the Yukawa quark sector as a toy example to demonstrate that the optimization of these loss functions results in true and beautiful models.

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Abstract:We describe a machine-learning-based surrogate model for reproducing the Bayesian posterior distributions for exoplanet atmospheric parameters derived from transmission spectra of transiting planets with typical retrieval software such as TauRex. The model is trained on ground truth distributions for seven parameters: the planet radius, the atmospheric temperature, and the mixing ratios for five common absorbers: $H_2O$, $CH_4$, $NH_3$, $CO$ and $CO_2$. The model performance is enhanced by domain-inspired preprocessing of the features and the use of semi-supervised learning in order to leverage the large amount of unlabelled training data available. The model was among the winning solutions in the 2023 Ariel Machine Learning Data Challenge.

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Authors:Roy T. Forestano, Konstantin T. Matchev, Katia Matcheva, Alexander Roman, Eyup B. Unlu, Sarunas Verner

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Abstract:Deep learning was recently successfully used in deriving symmetry transformations that preserve important physics quantities. Being completely agnostic, these techniques postpone the identification of the discovered symmetries to a later stage. In this letter we propose methods for examining and identifying the group-theoretic structure of such machine-learned symmetries. We design loss functions which probe the subalgebra structure either during the deep learning stage of symmetry discovery or in a subsequent post-processing stage. We illustrate the new methods with examples from the U(n) Lie group family, obtaining the respective subalgebra decompositions. As an application to particle physics, we demonstrate the identification of the residual symmetries after the spontaneous breaking of non-Abelian gauge symmetries like SU(3) and SU(5) which are commonly used in model building.

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Abstract:The next generation of telescopes will yield a substantial increase in the availability of high-resolution spectroscopic data for thousands of exoplanets. The sheer volume of data and number of planets to be analyzed greatly motivate the development of new, fast and efficient methods for flagging interesting planets for reobservation and detailed analysis. We advocate the application of machine learning (ML) techniques for anomaly (novelty) detection to exoplanet transit spectra, with the goal of identifying planets with unusual chemical composition and even searching for unknown biosignatures. We successfully demonstrate the feasibility of two popular anomaly detection methods (Local Outlier Factor and One Class Support Vector Machine) on a large public database of synthetic spectra. We consider several test cases, each with different levels of instrumental noise. In each case, we use ROC curves to quantify and compare the performance of the two ML techniques.

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Authors:Roy T. Forestano, Konstantin T. Matchev, Katia Matcheva, Alexander Roman, Eyup B. Unlu, Sarunas Verner

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Abstract:Recent work has applied supervised deep learning to derive continuous symmetry transformations that preserve the data labels and to obtain the corresponding algebras of symmetry generators. This letter introduces two improved algorithms that significantly speed up the discovery of these symmetry transformations. The new methods are demonstrated by deriving the complete set of generators for the unitary groups U(n) and the exceptional Lie groups $G_2$, $F_4$, and $E_6$. A third post-processing algorithm renders the found generators in sparse form. We benchmark the performance improvement of the new algorithms relative to the standard approach. Given the significant complexity of the exceptional Lie groups, our results demonstrate that this machine-learning method for discovering symmetries is completely general and can be applied to a wide variety of labeled datasets.

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