Effective feature representations play a critical role in enhancing the performance of text generation models that rely on deep neural networks. However, current approaches suffer from several drawbacks, such as the inability to capture the deep semantics of language and sensitivity to minor input variations, resulting in significant changes in the generated text. In this paper, we present a novel solution to these challenges by employing a mixture of experts, multiple encoders, to offer distinct perspectives on the emotional state of the user's utterance while simultaneously enhancing performance. We propose an end-to-end model architecture called ASEM that performs emotion analysis on top of sentiment analysis for open-domain chatbots, enabling the generation of empathetic responses that are fluent and relevant. In contrast to traditional attention mechanisms, the proposed model employs a specialized attention strategy that uniquely zeroes in on sentiment and emotion nuances within the user's utterance. This ensures the generation of context-rich representations tailored to the underlying emotional tone and sentiment intricacies of the text. Our approach outperforms existing methods for generating empathetic embeddings, providing empathetic and diverse responses. The performance of our proposed model significantly exceeds that of existing models, enhancing emotion detection accuracy by 6.2% and lexical diversity by 1.4%.
Existing learning models often utilise CT-scan images to predict lung diseases. These models are posed by high uncertainties that affect lung segmentation and visual feature learning. We introduce MARL, a novel Multimodal Attentional Representation Learning model architecture that learns useful features from multimodal data under uncertainty. We feed the proposed model with both the lung CT-scan images and their perspective historical patients' biological records collected over times. Such rich data offers to analyse both spatial and temporal aspects of the disease. MARL employs Fuzzy-based image spatial segmentation to overcome uncertainties in CT-scan images. We then utilise a pre-trained Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) to learn visual representation vectors from images. We augment patients' data with statistical features from the segmented images. We develop a Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) network to represent the augmented data and learn sequential patterns of disease progressions. Finally, we inject both CNN and LSTM feature vectors to an attention layer to help focus on the best learning features. We evaluated MARL on regression of lung disease progression and status classification. MARL outperforms state-of-the-art CNN architectures, such as EfficientNet and DenseNet, and baseline prediction models. It achieves a 91% R^2 score, which is higher than the other models by a range of 8% to 27%. Also, MARL achieves 97% and 92% accuracy for binary and multi-class classification, respectively. MARL improves the accuracy of state-of-the-art CNN models with a range of 19% to 57%. The results show that combining spatial and sequential temporal features produces better discriminative feature.
Spatiotemporal data mining (STDM) discovers useful patterns from the dynamic interplay between space and time. Several available surveys capture STDM advances and report a wealth of important progress in this field. However, STDM challenges and problems are not thoroughly discussed and presented in articles of their own. We attempt to fill this gap by providing a comprehensive literature survey on state-of-the-art advances in STDM. We describe the challenging issues and their causes and open gaps of multiple STDM directions and aspects. Specifically, we investigate the challenging issues in regards to spatiotemporal relationships, interdisciplinarity, discretisation, and data characteristics. Moreover, we discuss the limitations in the literature and open research problems related to spatiotemporal data representations, modelling and visualisation, and comprehensiveness of approaches. We explain issues related to STDM tasks of classification, clustering, hotspot detection, association and pattern mining, outlier detection, visualisation, visual analytics, and computer vision tasks. We also highlight STDM issues related to multiple applications including crime and public safety, traffic and transportation, earth and environment monitoring, epidemiology, social media, and Internet of Things.
* Accepted for publication at Artificial Intelligence Review