Entity Matching (EM) defines the task of learning to group objects by transferring semantic concepts from example groups (=entities) to unseen data. Despite the general availability of image data in the context of many EM-problems, most currently available EM-algorithms solely rely on (textual) meta data. In this paper, we introduce the first publicly available large-scale dataset for "visual entity matching", based on a production level use case in the retail domain. Using scanned advertisement leaflets, collected over several years from different European retailers, we provide a total of ~786k manually annotated, high resolution product images containing ~18k different individual retail products which are grouped into ~3k entities. The annotation of these product entities is based on a price comparison task, where each entity forms an equivalence class of comparable products. Following on a first baseline evaluation, we show that the proposed "visual entity matching" constitutes a novel learning problem which can not sufficiently be solved using standard image based classification and retrieval algorithms. Instead, novel approaches which allow to transfer example based visual equivalent classes to new data are needed to address the proposed problem. The aim of this paper is to provide a benchmark for such algorithms. Information about the dataset, evaluation code and download instructions are provided under https://www.retail-786k.org/.
Assessing the robustness of deep neural networks against out-of-distribution inputs is crucial, especially in safety-critical domains like autonomous driving, but also in safety systems where malicious actors can digitally alter inputs to circumvent safety guards. However, designing effective out-of-distribution tests that encompass all possible scenarios while preserving accurate label information is a challenging task. Existing methodologies often entail a compromise between variety and constraint levels for attacks and sometimes even both. In a first step towards a more holistic robustness evaluation of image classification models, we introduce an attack method based on image solarization that is conceptually straightforward yet avoids jeopardizing the global structure of natural images independent of the intensity. Through comprehensive evaluations of multiple ImageNet models, we demonstrate the attack's capacity to degrade accuracy significantly, provided it is not integrated into the training augmentations. Interestingly, even then, no full immunity to accuracy deterioration is achieved. In other settings, the attack can often be simplified into a black-box attack with model-independent parameters. Defenses against other corruptions do not consistently extend to be effective against our specific attack. Project website: https://github.com/paulgavrikov/adversarial_solarization
It is common practice to apply padding prior to convolution operations to preserve the resolution of feature-maps in Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN). While many alternatives exist, this is often achieved by adding a border of zeros around the inputs. In this work, we show that adversarial attacks often result in perturbation anomalies at the image boundaries, which are the areas where padding is used. Consequently, we aim to provide an analysis of the interplay between padding and adversarial attacks and seek an answer to the question of how different padding modes (or their absence) affect adversarial robustness in various scenarios.
We have developed a methodology for the systematic generation of a large image dataset of macerated wood references, which we used to generate image data for nine hardwood genera. This is the basis for a substantial approach to automate, for the first time, the identification of hardwood species in microscopic images of fibrous materials by deep learning. Our methodology includes a flexible pipeline for easy annotation of vessel elements. We compare the performance of different neural network architectures and hyperparameters. Our proposed method performs similarly well to human experts. In the future, this will improve controls on global wood fiber product flows to protect forests.
Diffusion models recently have been successfully applied for the visual synthesis of strikingly realistic appearing images. This raises strong concerns about their potential for malicious purposes. In this paper, we propose using the lightweight multi Local Intrinsic Dimensionality (multiLID), which has been originally developed in context of the detection of adversarial examples, for the automatic detection of synthetic images and the identification of the according generator networks. In contrast to many existing detection approaches, which often only work for GAN-generated images, the proposed method provides close to perfect detection results in many realistic use cases. Extensive experiments on known and newly created datasets demonstrate that the proposed multiLID approach exhibits superiority in diffusion detection and model identification. Since the empirical evaluations of recent publications on the detection of generated images are often mainly focused on the "LSUN-Bedroom" dataset, we further establish a comprehensive benchmark for the detection of diffusion-generated images, including samples from several diffusion models with different image sizes.
Motivated by the recent trend towards the usage of larger receptive fields for more context-aware neural networks in vision applications, we aim to investigate how large these receptive fields really need to be. To facilitate such study, several challenges need to be addressed, most importantly: (i) We need to provide an effective way for models to learn large filters (potentially as large as the input data) without increasing their memory consumption during training or inference, (ii) the study of filter sizes has to be decoupled from other effects such as the network width or number of learnable parameters, and (iii) the employed convolution operation should be a plug-and-play module that can replace any conventional convolution in a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) and allow for an efficient implementation in current frameworks. To facilitate such models, we propose to learn not spatial but frequency representations of filter weights as neural implicit functions, such that even infinitely large filters can be parameterized by only a few learnable weights. The resulting neural implicit frequency CNNs are the first models to achieve results on par with the state-of-the-art on large image classification benchmarks while executing convolutions solely in the frequency domain and can be employed within any CNN architecture. They allow us to provide an extensive analysis of the learned receptive fields. Interestingly, our analysis shows that, although the proposed networks could learn very large convolution kernels, the learned filters practically translate into well-localized and relatively small convolution kernels in the spatial domain.
Convolutional neural networks encode images through a sequence of convolutions, normalizations and non-linearities as well as downsampling operations into potentially strong semantic embeddings. Yet, previous work showed that even slight mistakes during sampling, leading to aliasing, can be directly attributed to the networks' lack in robustness. To address such issues and facilitate simpler and faster adversarial training,  recently proposed FLC pooling, a method for provably alias-free downsampling - in theory. In this work, we conduct a further analysis through the lens of signal processing and find that such current pooling methods, which address aliasing in the frequency domain, are still prone to spectral leakage artifacts. Hence, we propose aliasing and spectral artifact-free pooling, short ASAP. While only introducing a few modifications to FLC pooling, networks using ASAP as downsampling method exhibit higher native robustness against common corruptions, a property that FLC pooling was missing. ASAP also increases native robustness against adversarial attacks on high and low resolution data while maintaining similar clean accuracy or even outperforming the baseline.
The mathematical representations of data in the Spherical Harmonic (SH) domain has recently regained increasing interest in the machine learning community. This technical report gives an in-depth introduction to the theoretical foundation and practical implementation of SH representations, summarizing works on rotation invariant and equivariant features, as well as convolutions and exact correlations of signals on spheres. In extension, these methods are then generalized from scalar SH representations to Vectorial Harmonics (VH), providing the same capabilities for 3d vector fields on spheres