This study proposes a fully automated approach for the left atrial segmentation from routine cine long-axis cardiac magnetic resonance image sequences using deep convolutional neural networks and Bayesian filtering. The proposed approach consists of a classification network that automatically detects the type of long-axis sequence and three different convolutional neural network models followed by unscented Kalman filtering (UKF) that delineates the left atrium. Instead of training and predicting all long-axis sequence types together, the proposed approach first identifies the image sequence type as to 2, 3 and 4 chamber views, and then performs prediction based on neural nets trained for that particular sequence type. The datasets were acquired retrospectively and ground truth manual segmentation was provided by an expert radiologist. In addition to neural net based classification and segmentation, another neural net is trained and utilized to select image sequences for further processing using UKF to impose temporal consistency over cardiac cycle. A cyclic dynamic model with time-varying angular frequency is introduced in UKF to characterize the variations in cardiac motion during image scanning. The proposed approach was trained and evaluated separately with varying amount of training data with images acquired from 20, 40, 60 and 80 patients. Evaluations over 1515 images with equal number of images from each chamber group acquired from an additional 20 patients demonstrated that the proposed model outperformed state-of-the-art and yielded a mean Dice coefficient value of 94.1%, 93.7% and 90.1% for 2, 3 and 4-chamber sequences, respectively, when trained with datasets from 80 patients.