Get our free extension to see links to code for papers anywhere online!Free add-on: code for papers everywhere!Free add-on: See code for papers anywhere!

IDSIA

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:Preference modelling lies at the intersection of economics, decision theory, machine learning and statistics. By understanding individuals' preferences and how they make choices, we can build products that closely match their expectations, paving the way for more efficient and personalised applications across a wide range of domains. The objective of this tutorial is to present a cohesive and comprehensive framework for preference learning with Gaussian Processes (GPs), demonstrating how to seamlessly incorporate rationality principles (from economics and decision theory) into the learning process. By suitably tailoring the likelihood function, this framework enables the construction of preference learning models that encompass random utility models, limits of discernment, and scenarios with multiple conflicting utilities for both object- and label-preference. This tutorial builds upon established research while simultaneously introducing some novel GP-based models to address specific gaps in the existing literature.

Via

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:We assume to be given structural equations over discrete variables inducing a directed acyclic graph, namely, a structural causal model, together with data about its internal nodes. The question we want to answer is how we can compute bounds for partially identifiable counterfactual queries from such an input. We start by giving a map from structural casual models to credal networks. This allows us to compute exact counterfactual bounds via algorithms for credal nets on a subclass of structural causal models. Exact computation is going to be inefficient in general given that, as we show, causal inference is NP-hard even on polytrees. We target then approximate bounds via a causal EM scheme. We evaluate their accuracy by providing credible intervals on the quality of the approximation; we show through a synthetic benchmark that the EM scheme delivers accurate results in a fair number of runs. In the course of the discussion, we also point out what seems to be a neglected limitation to the trending idea that counterfactual bounds can be computed without knowledge of the structural equations. We also present a real case study on palliative care to show how our algorithms can readily be used for practical purposes.

Via

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:In consumer theory, ranking available objects by means of preference relations yields the most common description of individual choices. However, preference-based models assume that individuals: (1) give their preferences only between pairs of objects; (2) are always able to pick the best preferred object. In many situations, they may be instead choosing out of a set with more than two elements and, because of lack of information and/or incomparability (objects with contradictory characteristics), they may not able to select a single most preferred object. To address these situations, we need a choice-model which allows an individual to express a set-valued choice. Choice functions provide such a mathematical framework. We propose a Gaussian Process model to learn choice functions from choice-data. The proposed model assumes a multiple utility representation of a choice function based on the concept of Pareto rationalization, and derives a strategy to learn both the number and the values of these latent multiple utilities. Simulation experiments demonstrate that the proposed model outperforms the state-of-the-art methods.

Via

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:Hierarchical time series are common in several applied fields. Forecasts are required to be coherent, that is, to satisfy the constraints given by the hierarchy. The most popular technique to enforce coherence is called reconciliation, which adjusts the base forecasts computed for each time series. However, recent works on probabilistic reconciliation present several limitations. In this paper, we propose a new approach based on conditioning to reconcile any type of forecast distribution. We then introduce a new algorithm, called Bottom-Up Importance Sampling, to efficiently sample from the reconciled distribution. It can be used for any base forecast distribution: discrete, continuous, or even in the form of samples. The method was tested on several temporal hierarchies showing that our reconciliation effectively improves the quality of probabilistic forecasts. Moreover, our algorithm is up to 3 orders of magnitude faster than vanilla MCMC methods.

Via

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:Causal analysis may be affected by selection bias, which is defined as the systematic exclusion of data from a certain subpopulation. Previous work in this area focused on the derivation of identifiability conditions. We propose instead a first algorithm to address both identifiable and unidentifiable queries. We prove that, in spite of the missingness induced by the selection bias, the likelihood of the available data is unimodal. This enables us to use the causal expectation-maximisation scheme to obtain the values of causal queries in the identifiable case, and to compute bounds otherwise. Experiments demonstrate the approach to be practically viable. Theoretical convergence characterisations are provided.

Via

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:We propose a principled method for the reconciliation of any probabilistic base forecasts. We show how probabilistic reconciliation can be obtained by merging, via Bayes' rule, the information contained in the base forecast for the bottom and the upper time series. We illustrate our method on a toy hierarchy, showing how our framework allows the probabilistic reconciliation of any base forecast. We perform experiment in the reconciliation of temporal hierarchies of count time series, obtaining major improvements compared to probabilistic reconciliation based on the Gaussian or the truncated Gaussian distribution.

Via

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:Gaussian processes (GPs) are an important tool in machine learning and statistics with applications ranging from social and natural science through engineering. They constitute a powerful kernelized non-parametric method with well-calibrated uncertainty estimates, however, off-the-shelf GP inference procedures are limited to datasets with several thousand data points because of their cubic computational complexity. For this reason, many sparse GPs techniques have been developed over the past years. In this paper, we focus on GP regression tasks and propose a new approach based on aggregating predictions from several local and correlated experts. Thereby, the degree of correlation between the experts can vary between independent up to fully correlated experts. The individual predictions of the experts are aggregated taking into account their correlation resulting in consistent uncertainty estimates. Our method recovers independent Product of Experts, sparse GP and full GP in the limiting cases. The presented framework can deal with a general kernel function and multiple variables, and has a time and space complexity which is linear in the number of experts and data samples, which makes our approach highly scalable. We demonstrate superior performance, in a time vs. accuracy sense, of our proposed method against state-of-the-art GP approximation methods for synthetic as well as several real-world datasets with deterministic and stochastic optimization.

Via

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:In this work we introduce a new framework for multi-objective Bayesian optimisation where the multi-objective functions can only be accessed via choice judgements, such as ``I pick options A,B,C among this set of five options A,B,C,D,E''. The fact that the option D is rejected means that there is at least one option among the selected ones A,B,C that I strictly prefer over D (but I do not have to specify which one). We assume that there is a latent vector function f for some dimension $n_e$ which embeds the options into the real vector space of dimension n, so that the choice set can be represented through a Pareto set of non-dominated options. By placing a Gaussian process prior on f and deriving a novel likelihood model for choice data, we propose a Bayesian framework for choice functions learning. We then apply this surrogate model to solve a novel multi-objective Bayesian optimisation from choice data problem.

Via

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:Skew-Gaussian processes (SkewGPs) extend the multivariate Unified Skew-Normal distributions over finite dimensional vectors to distribution over functions. SkewGPs are more general and flexible than Gaussian processes, as SkewGPs may also represent asymmetric distributions. In a recent contribution we showed that SkewGP and probit likelihood are conjugate, which allows us to compute the exact posterior for non-parametric binary classification and preference learning. In this paper, we generalize previous results and we prove that SkewGP is conjugate with both the normal and affine probit likelihood, and more in general, with their product. This allows us to (i) handle classification, preference, numeric and ordinal regression, and mixed problems in a unified framework; (ii) derive closed-form expression for the corresponding posterior distributions. We show empirically that the proposed framework based on SkewGP provides better performance than Gaussian processes in active learning and Bayesian (constrained) optimization.

Via

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:A kernel-based framework for spatio-temporal data analysis is introduced that applies in situations when the underlying system dynamics are governed by a dynamic equation. The key ingredient is a representer theorem that involves time-dependent kernels. Such kernels occur commonly in the expansion of solutions of partial differential equations. The representer theorem is applied to find among all solutions of a dynamic equation the one that minimizes the error with given spatio-temporal samples. This is motivated by the fact that very often a differential equation is given a priori (e.g.~by the laws of physics) and a practitioner seeks the best solution that is compatible with her noisy measurements. Our guiding example is the Fokker-Planck equation, which describes the evolution of density in stochastic diffusion processes. A regression and density estimation framework is introduced for spatio-temporal modeling under Fokker-Planck dynamics with initial and boundary conditions.

Via