Mental health professionals and clinicians have observed the upsurge of mental disorders due to Interpersonal Risk Factors (IRFs). To simulate the human-in-the-loop triaging scenario for early detection of mental health disorders, we recognized textual indications to ascertain these IRFs : Thwarted Belongingness (TBe) and Perceived Burdensomeness (PBu) within personal narratives. In light of this, we use N-shot learning with GPT-3 model on the IRF dataset, and underscored the importance of fine-tuning GPT-3 model to incorporate the context-specific sensitivity and the interconnectedness of textual cues that represent both IRFs. In this paper, we introduce an Interpretable Prompting (InterPrompt)} method to boost the attention mechanism by fine-tuning the GPT-3 model. This allows a more sophisticated level of language modification by adjusting the pre-trained weights. Our model learns to detect usual patterns and underlying connections across both the IRFs, which leads to better system-level explainability and trustworthiness. The results of our research demonstrate that all four variants of GPT-3 model, when fine-tuned with InterPrompt, perform considerably better as compared to the baseline methods, both in terms of classification and explanation generation.
Social media is a potential source of information that infers latent mental states through Natural Language Processing (NLP). While narrating real-life experiences, social media users convey their feeling of loneliness or isolated lifestyle, impacting their mental well-being. Existing literature on psychological theories points to loneliness as the major consequence of interpersonal risk factors, propounding the need to investigate loneliness as a major aspect of mental disturbance. We formulate lonesomeness detection in social media posts as an explainable binary classification problem, discovering the users at-risk, suggesting the need of resilience for early control. To the best of our knowledge, there is no existing explainable dataset, i.e., one with human-readable, annotated text spans, to facilitate further research and development in loneliness detection causing mental disturbance. In this work, three experts: a senior clinical psychologist, a rehabilitation counselor, and a social NLP researcher define annotation schemes and perplexity guidelines to mark the presence or absence of lonesomeness, along with the marking of text-spans in original posts as explanation, in 3,521 Reddit posts. We expect the public release of our dataset, LonXplain, and traditional classifiers as baselines via GitHub.
Interactions among humans on social media often convey intentions behind their actions, yielding a psychological language resource for Mental Health Analysis (MHA) of online users. The success of Computational Intelligence Techniques (CIT) for inferring mental illness from such social media resources points to NLP as a lens for causal analysis and perception mining. However, we argue that more consequential and explainable research is required for optimal impact on clinical psychology practice and personalized mental healthcare. To bridge this gap, we posit two significant dimensions: (1) Causal analysis to illustrate a cause and effect relationship in the user generated text; (2) Perception mining to infer psychological perspectives of social effects on online users intentions. Within the scope of Natural Language Processing (NLP), we further explore critical areas of inquiry associated with these two dimensions, specifically through recent advancements in discourse analysis. This position paper guides the community to explore solutions in this space and advance the state of practice in developing conversational agents for inferring mental health from social media. We advocate for a more explainable approach toward modeling computational psychology problems through the lens of language as we observe an increased number of research contributions in dataset and problem formulation for causal relation extraction and perception enhancements while inferring mental states.
With recent developments in digitization of clinical psychology, NLP research community has revolutionized the field of mental health detection on social media. Existing research in mental health analysis revolves around the cross-sectional studies to classify users' intent on social media. For in-depth analysis, we investigate existing classifiers to solve the problem of causal categorization which suggests the inefficiency of learning based methods due to limited training samples. To handle this challenge, we use transformer models and demonstrate the efficacy of a pre-trained transfer learning on "CAMS" dataset. The experimental result improves the accuracy and depicts the importance of identifying cause-and-effect relationships in the underlying text.
With recent developments in Social Computing, Natural Language Processing and Clinical Psychology, the social NLP research community addresses the challenge of automation in mental illness on social media. A recent extension to the problem of multi-class classification of mental health issues is to identify the cause behind the user's intention. However, multi-class causal categorization for mental health issues on social media has a major challenge of wrong prediction due to the overlapping problem of causal explanations. There are two possible mitigation techniques to solve this problem: (i) Inconsistency among causal explanations/ inappropriate human-annotated inferences in the dataset, (ii) in-depth analysis of arguments and stances in self-reported text using discourse analysis. In this research work, we hypothesise that if there exists the inconsistency among F1 scores of different classes, there must be inconsistency among corresponding causal explanations as well. In this task, we fine tune the classifiers and find explanations for multi-class causal categorization of mental illness on social media with LIME and Integrated Gradient (IG) methods. We test our methods with CAMS dataset and validate with annotated interpretations. A key contribution of this research work is to find the reason behind inconsistency in accuracy of multi-class causal categorization. The effectiveness of our methods is evident with the results obtained having category-wise average scores of $81.29 \%$ and $0.906$ using cosine similarity and word mover's distance, respectively.
Research community has witnessed substantial growth in the detection of mental health issues and their associated reasons from analysis of social media. We introduce a new dataset for Causal Analysis of Mental health issues in Social media posts (CAMS). Our contributions for causal analysis are two-fold: causal interpretation and causal categorization. We introduce an annotation schema for this task of causal analysis. We demonstrate the efficacy of our schema on two different datasets: (i) crawling and annotating 3155 Reddit posts and (ii) re-annotating the publicly available SDCNL dataset of 1896 instances for interpretable causal analysis. We further combine these into the CAMS dataset and make this resource publicly available along with associated source code: https://github.com/drmuskangarg/CAMS. We present experimental results of models learned from CAMS dataset and demonstrate that a classic Logistic Regression model outperforms the next best (CNN-LSTM) model by 4.9\% accuracy.
* Proceedings of the 13th Conference on Language Resources and
Evaluation (LREC22),20-25 June 2022, European Language Resources Association
(ELRA) * 10 pages
Cross-lingual word embeddings can be applied to several natural language processing applications across multiple languages. Unlike prior works that use word embeddings based on the Euclidean space, this short paper presents a simple and effective cross-lingual Word2Vec model that adapts to the Poincar\'e ball model of hyperbolic space to learn unsupervised cross-lingual word representations from a German-English parallel corpus. It has been shown that hyperbolic embeddings can capture and preserve hierarchical relationships. We evaluate the model on both hypernymy and analogy tasks. The proposed model achieves comparable performance with the vanilla Word2Vec model on the cross-lingual analogy task, the hypernymy task shows that the cross-lingual Poincar\'e Word2Vec model can capture latent hierarchical structure from free text across languages, which are absent from the Euclidean-based Word2Vec representations. Our results show that by preserving the latent hierarchical information, hyperbolic spaces can offer better representations for cross-lingual embeddings.