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Abstract:Apprenticeship learning crucially depends on effectively learning rewards, and hence control policies from user demonstrations. Of particular difficulty is the setting where the desired task consists of a number of sub-goals with temporal dependencies. The quality of inferred rewards and hence policies are typically limited by the quality of demonstrations, and poor inference of these can lead to undesirable outcomes. In this letter, we show how temporal logic specifications that describe high level task objectives, are encoded in a graph to define a temporal-based metric that reasons about behaviors of demonstrators and the learner agent to improve the quality of inferred rewards and policies. Through experiments on a diverse set of robot manipulator simulations, we show how our framework overcomes the drawbacks of prior literature by drastically improving the number of demonstrations required to learn a control policy.

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Abstract:In the learning from demonstration (LfD) paradigm, understanding and evaluating the demonstrated behaviors plays a critical role in extracting control policies for robots. Without this knowledge, a robot may infer incorrect reward functions that lead to undesirable or unsafe control policies. Recent work has proposed an LfD framework where a user provides a set of formal task specifications to guide LfD, to address the challenge of reward shaping. However, in this framework, specifications are manually ordered in a performance graph (a partial order that specifies relative importance between the specifications). The main contribution of this paper is an algorithm to learn the performance graph directly from the user-provided demonstrations, and show that the reward functions generated using the learned performance graph generate similar policies to those from manually specified performance graphs. We perform a user study that shows that priorities specified by users on behaviors in a simulated highway driving domain match the automatically inferred performance graph. This establishes that we can accurately evaluate user demonstrations with respect to task specifications without expert criteria.

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Abstract:Learning-from-demonstrations is an emerging paradigm to obtain effective robot control policies for complex tasks via reinforcement learning without the need to explicitly design reward functions. However, it is susceptible to imperfections in demonstrations and also raises concerns of safety and interpretability in the learned control policies. To address these issues, we use Signal Temporal Logic to evaluate and rank the quality of demonstrations. Temporal logic-based specifications allow us to create non-Markovian rewards, and also define interesting causal dependencies between tasks such as sequential task specifications. We validate our approach through experiments on discrete-world and OpenAI Gym environments, and show that our approach outperforms the state-of-the-art Maximum Causal Entropy Inverse Reinforcement Learning.

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Abstract:Many complex cyber-physical systems can be modeled as heterogeneous components interacting with each other in real-time. We assume that the correctness of each component can be specified as a requirement satisfied by the output signals produced by the component, and that such an output guarantee is expressed in a real-time temporal logic such as Signal Temporal Logic (STL). In this paper, we hypothesize that a large subset of input signals for which the corresponding output signals satisfy the output requirement can also be compactly described using an STL formula that we call the environment assumption. We propose an algorithm to mine such an environment assumption using a supervised learning technique. Essentially, our algorithm treats the environment assumption as a classifier that labels input signals as good if the corresponding output signal satisfies the output requirement, and as bad otherwise. Our learning method simultaneously learns the structure of the STL formula as well as the values of the numeric constants appearing in the formula. To achieve this, we combine a procedure to systematically enumerate candidate Parametric STL (PSTL) formulas, with a decision-tree based approach to learn parameter values. We demonstrate experimental results on real world data from several domains including transportation and health care.

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Authors:Sara Mohammadinejad, Jyotirmoy V. Deshmukh, Aniruddh G. Puranic, Marcell Vazquez-Chanlatte, Alexandre Donzé

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Abstract:Cyber-physical system applications such as autonomous vehicles, wearable devices, and avionic systems generate a large volume of time-series data. Designers often look for tools to help classify and categorize the data. Traditional machine learning techniques for time-series data offer several solutions to solve these problems; however, the artifacts trained by these algorithms often lack interpretability. On the other hand, temporal logics, such as Signal Temporal Logic (STL) have been successfully used in the formal methods community as specifications of time-series behaviors. In this work, we propose a new technique to automatically learn temporal logic formulae that are able to cluster and classify real-valued time-series data. Previous work on learning STL formulas from data either assumes a formula-template to be given by the user, or assumes some special fragment of STL that enables exploring the formula structure in a systematic fashion. In our technique, we relax these assumptions, and provide a way to systematically explore the space of all STL formulas. As the space of all STL formulas is very large, and contains many semantically equivalent formulas, we suggest a technique to heuristically prune the space of formulas considered. Finally, we illustrate our technique on various case studies from the automotive, transportation and healthcare domain.

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