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Abstract:The exponential scaling of the wave function is a fundamental property of quantum systems with far reaching implications in our ability to process quantum information. A problem where these are particularly relevant is quantum state tomography. State tomography, whose objective is to obtain a full description of a quantum system, can be analysed in the framework of computational learning theory. In this model, quantum states have been shown to be Probably Approximately Correct (PAC)-learnable with sample complexity linear in the number of qubits. However, it is conjectured that in general quantum states require an exponential amount of computation to be learned. Here, using results from the literature on the efficient classical simulation of quantum systems, we show that stabiliser states are efficiently PAC-learnable. Our results solve an open problem formulated by Aaronson [Proc. R. Soc. A, 2088, (2007)] and propose learning theory as a tool for exploring the power of quantum computation.

* Quantum Information and Computation, Vol. 18, No. 7&8 (2018)
541-552 * v2: 11 pages, typos corrected, introduction of a number of stylistic
changes and analysis of the computational cost of the learning algorithm