Get our free extension to see links to code for papers anywhere online!Free add-on: code for papers everywhere!Free add-on: See code for papers anywhere!

Abstract:Given a single trajectory of a dynamical system, we analyze the performance of the nonparametric least squares estimator (LSE). More precisely, we give nonasymptotic expected $l^2$-distance bounds between the LSE and the true regression function, where expectation is evaluated on a fresh, counterfactual, trajectory. We leverage recently developed information-theoretic methods to establish the optimality of the LSE for nonparametric hypotheses classes in terms of supremum norm metric entropy and a subgaussian parameter. Next, we relate this subgaussian parameter to the stability of the underlying process using notions from dynamical systems theory. When combined, these developments lead to rate-optimal error bounds that scale as $T^{-1/(2+q)}$ for suitably stable processes and hypothesis classes with metric entropy growth of order $\delta^{-q}$. Here, $T$ is the length of the observed trajectory, $\delta \in \mathbb{R}_+$ is the packing granularity and $q\in (0,2)$ is a complexity term. Finally, we specialize our results to a number of scenarios of practical interest, such as Lipschitz dynamics, generalized linear models, and dynamics described by functions in certain classes of Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Spaces (RKHS).