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Authors:Teresa Klatzer, Paul Dobson, Yoann Altmann, Marcelo Pereyra, Jesús María Sanz-Serna, Konstantinos C. Zygalakis

Abstract:This paper presents a new accelerated proximal Markov chain Monte Carlo methodology to perform Bayesian inference in imaging inverse problems with an underlying convex geometry. The proposed strategy takes the form of a stochastic relaxed proximal-point iteration that admits two complementary interpretations. For models that are smooth or regularised by Moreau-Yosida smoothing, the algorithm is equivalent to an implicit midpoint discretisation of an overdamped Langevin diffusion targeting the posterior distribution of interest. This discretisation is asymptotically unbiased for Gaussian targets and shown to converge in an accelerated manner for any target that is $\kappa$-strongly log-concave (i.e., requiring in the order of $\sqrt{\kappa}$ iterations to converge, similarly to accelerated optimisation schemes), comparing favorably to [M. Pereyra, L. Vargas Mieles, K.C. Zygalakis, SIAM J. Imaging Sciences, 13, 2 (2020), pp. 905-935] which is only provably accelerated for Gaussian targets and has bias. For models that are not smooth, the algorithm is equivalent to a Leimkuhler-Matthews discretisation of a Langevin diffusion targeting a Moreau-Yosida approximation of the posterior distribution of interest, and hence achieves a significantly lower bias than conventional unadjusted Langevin strategies based on the Euler-Maruyama discretisation. For targets that are $\kappa$-strongly log-concave, the provided non-asymptotic convergence analysis also identifies the optimal time step which maximizes the convergence speed. The proposed methodology is demonstrated through a range of experiments related to image deconvolution with Gaussian and Poisson noise, with assumption-driven and data-driven convex priors.

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Authors:Kerstin Hammernik, Teresa Klatzer, Erich Kobler, Michael P Recht, Daniel K Sodickson, Thomas Pock, Florian Knoll

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Abstract:Purpose: To allow fast and high-quality reconstruction of clinical accelerated multi-coil MR data by learning a variational network that combines the mathematical structure of variational models with deep learning. Theory and Methods: Generalized compressed sensing reconstruction formulated as a variational model is embedded in an unrolled gradient descent scheme. All parameters of this formulation, including the prior model defined by filter kernels and activation functions as well as the data term weights, are learned during an offline training procedure. The learned model can then be applied online to previously unseen data. Results: The variational network approach is evaluated on a clinical knee imaging protocol. The variational network reconstructions outperform standard reconstruction algorithms in terms of image quality and residual artifacts for all tested acceleration factors and sampling patterns. Conclusion: Variational network reconstructions preserve the natural appearance of MR images as well as pathologies that were not included in the training data set. Due to its high computational performance, i.e., reconstruction time of 193 ms on a single graphics card, and the omission of parameter tuning once the network is trained, this new approach to image reconstruction can easily be integrated into clinical workflow.

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