By identifying similarities between successive inputs, Self-Supervised Learning (SSL) methods for time series analysis have demonstrated their effectiveness in encoding the inherent static characteristics of temporal data. However, an exclusive emphasis on similarities might result in representations that overlook the dynamic attributes critical for modeling cardiovascular diseases within a confined subject cohort. Introducing Distilled Encoding Beyond Similarities (DEBS), this paper pioneers an SSL approach that transcends mere similarities by integrating dissimilarities among positive pairs. The framework is applied to electrocardiogram (ECG) signals, leading to a notable enhancement of +10\% in the detection accuracy of Atrial Fibrillation (AFib) across diverse subjects. DEBS underscores the potential of attaining a more refined representation by encoding the dynamic characteristics of time series data, tapping into dissimilarities during the optimization process. Broadly, the strategy delineated in this study holds the promise of unearthing novel avenues for advancing SSL methodologies tailored to temporal data.
Extracting information from the electrocardiography (ECG) signal is an essential step in the design of digital health technologies in cardiology. In recent years, several machine learning (ML) algorithms for automatic extraction of information in ECG have been proposed. Supervised learning methods have successfully been used to identify specific aspects in the signal, like detection of rhythm disorders (arrhythmias). Self-supervised learning (SSL) methods, on the other hand, can be used to extract all the features contained in the data. The model is optimized without any specific goal and learns from the data itself. By adapting state-of-the-art computer vision methodologies to the signal processing domain, a few SSL approaches have been reported recently for ECG processing. However, such SSL methods require either data augmentation or negative pairs, which limits the method to only look for similarities between two ECG inputs, either two versions of the same signal or two signals from the same subject. This leads to models that are very effective at extracting characteristics that are stable in a subject, such as gender or age. But they are not successful at capturing changes within the ECG recording that can explain dynamic aspects, like different arrhythmias or different sleep stages. In this work, we introduce the first SSL method that uses neither data augmentation nor negative pairs for understanding ECG signals, and still, achieves comparable quality representations. As a result, it is possible to design a SSL method that not only captures similarities between two inputs, but also captures dissimilarities for a complete understanding of the data. In addition, a model based on transformer blocks is presented, which produces better results than a model based on convolutional layers (XResNet50) with almost the same number of parameters.
Objectives: With the technological advancements in the field of tele-health monitoring, it is now possible to gather huge amounts of electro-physiological signals such as electrocardiogram (ECG). It is therefore necessary to develop models/algorithms that are capable of analysing these massive amounts of data in real-time. This paper proposes a deep learning model for real-time segmentation of heartbeats. Methods: The proposed algorithm, named as the DENS-ECG algorithm, combines convolutional neural network (CNN) and long short-term memory (LSTM) model to detect onset, peak, and offset of different heartbeat waveforms such as the P-wave, QRS complex, T-wave, and No wave (NW). Using ECG as the inputs, the model learns to extract high level features through the training process, which, unlike other classical machine learning based methods, eliminates the feature engineering step. Results: The proposed DENS-ECG model was trained and validated on a dataset with 105 ECGs of length 15 minutes each and achieved an average sensitivity and precision of 97.95% and 95.68%, respectively, using a 5-fold cross validation. Additionally, the model was evaluated on an unseen dataset to examine its robustness in QRS detection, which resulted in a sensitivity of 99.61% and precision of 99.52%. Conclusion: The empirical results show the flexibility and accuracy of the combined CNN-LSTM model for ECG signal delineation. Significance: This paper proposes an efficient and easy to use approach using deep learning for heartbeat segmentation, which could potentially be used in real-time tele-health monitoring systems.