In this study, we present a technique that spans multi-scale views (global scale -- meaning brain network-level and local scale -- examining each individual ROI that constitutes the network) applied to resting-state fMRI volumes. Deep learning based classification is utilized in understanding neurodegeneration. The novelty of the proposed approach lies in utilizing two extreme scales of analysis. One branch considers the entire network within graph-analysis framework. Concurrently, the second branch scrutinizes each ROI within a network independently, focusing on evolution of dynamics. For each subject, graph-based approach employs partial correlation to profile the subject in a single graph where each ROI is a node, providing insights into differences in levels of participation. In contrast, non-linear analysis employs recurrence plots to profile a subject as a multichannel 2D image, revealing distinctions in underlying dynamics. The proposed approach is employed for classification of a cohort of 50 healthy control (HC) and 50 Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), sourced from ADNI dataset. Results point to: (1) reduced activity in ROIs such as PCC in MCI (2) greater activity in occipital in MCI, which is not seen in HC (3) when analysed for dynamics, all ROIs in MCI show greater predictability in time-series.
The human brain can be conceptualized as a dynamical system. Utilizing resting state fMRI time series imaging, we can study the underlying dynamics at ear-marked Regions of Interest (ROIs) to understand structure or lack thereof. This differential behavior could be key to understanding the neurodegeneration and also to classify between healthy and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) subjects. In this study, we consider 6 brain networks spanning over 160 ROIs derived from Dosenbach template, where each network consists of 25-30 ROIs. Recurrence plot, extensively used to understand evolution of time series, is employed. Representative time series at each ROI is converted to its corresponding recurrence plot visualization, which is subsequently condensed to low-dimensional feature embeddings through Autoencoders. The performance of the proposed method is shown on fMRI volumes of 100 subjects (balanced data), taken from publicly available ADNI dataset. Results obtained show peak classification accuracy of 93% among the 6 brain networks, mean accuracy of 89.3% thereby illustrating promise in the proposed approach.